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珍珠草Phyllanthus urinaria

时间:2013-09-11 10:15来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):珍珠草 学名( Scientific Name ): Phyllanthus urinaria L. 英文名( English Common Name ): chamber bitter 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 叶下珠 异名( Synonym ): 科属( Family Genus ): 大戟科(Euphorbiaceae
中文名(Chinese Name):珍珠草
学名(Scientific Name):Phyllanthus urinaria L.
英文名(English Common Name):chamber bitter
别名(Chinese Common Name):叶下珠
异名(Synonym):
科属(Family & Genus):大戟科(Euphorbiaceae)叶下珠属
形态特征(Description):一年生草本,高10-60厘米,茎通常直立,基部多分枝,枝倾卧而后上升;枝具翅状纵棱,上部被-纵列疏短柔毛。叶片纸质,因叶柄扭转而呈羽状排列,长圆形或倒卵形,长4-10毫米,宽2-5毫米,顶端圆、钝或急尖而有小尖头,下面灰绿色,近边缘或边缘有1-3列短粗毛;侧脉每边4-5条,明显;叶柄极短;托叶卵状披针形,长约1.5毫米。花雌雄同株,直径约4毫米;雄花:2-4朵簇生于叶腋,通常仅上面1朵开花,下面的很小;花梗长约0.5毫米,基部有苞片1-2枚;萼片6,倒卵形,长约0.6毫米,顶端钝;雄蕊3,花丝全部合生成柱状;花粉粒长球形,通常具5孔沟,少数3、4、6孔沟,内孔横长椭圆形;花盘腺体6,分离,与萼片互生;雌花:单生于小枝中下部的叶腋内;花梗长约0.5毫米;萼片6,近相等,卵状披针形,长约1毫米,边缘膜质,黄白色;花盘圆盘状,边全缘;子房卵状,有鳞片状凸起,花柱分离,顶端2裂,裂片弯卷。蒴果圆球状,直径1-2毫米,红色,表面具-小凸刺,有宿存的花柱和萼片,开裂后轴柱宿存;种子长1.2毫米,橙黄色。花期4-6月,果期7-11月。
 
分布(Distribution):产河北、山西、陕西、华东、华中、华南、西南等省区,通常生于海拔500米以下旷野平地、旱田、山地路旁或林缘。东南亚经印度尼西亚至南美也有。
用途(Use):药用,全草有解毒、消炎、清热止泻、利尿之效,可治赤目肿痛、肠炎腹泻、痢疾、肝炎、小儿疳积、肾炎水肿、尿路感染等。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 11 Page 181, 186, 187
Phyllanthus urinaria Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 982. 1753.
叶下珠 ye xia zhu  | Euphorbiaceae  | Phyllanthus
Diasperus urinaria (Linnaeus) Kuntze; Phyllanthus alatus Blume; P. cantoniensis Hornemann; P. cantoniensis Schweigger (1812), not Hornemann (1807); P. chamaepeuce Ridley; P. lepidocarpus Siebold & Zuccarini; P. leprocarpus Wight; P. nozeranii Rossignol & Haicour.
Annual herbs, erect or procumbent, up to 80 cm tall; stem much branched at base; branches prostrate to ascending, winged, hispidulous along one side. Leaves distichous; stipules ovate-lanceolate, ca. 1.5 mm, base conspicuously auriculate; petiole very short; leaf blade papery, oblong or oblong-obovate or nearly linear, sometimes slightly falcate, 4-10 × 2-5 mm, abaxially gray-green or pale, or sometimes reddish tinged, adaxially bright or dark green, base mostly obtuse, sometimes conspicuously oblique, margin ciliate, apex rounded, obtuse, or acutely mucronulate; lateral veins 4 or 5 pairs, conspicuous. Plants monoecious. Flower fascicles male along distal part of branchlets, 2-4-flowered, female along middle and lower part of branchlets, 1-flowered; pedicel ca. 0.5 mm, with 1-2 bracteoles at base. Male flowers: sepals 6, elliptic to oblong-obovate, 0.3-0.6 × 0.2-0.4 mm, yellowish white, apex obtuse; disk glands 6, green; stamens 3; filaments completely united into a slender column. Female flowers: pedicels ca. 0.5 mm; sepals 6, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, subequal, ca. 1 mm, margin membranous, yellowish white, persistent in fruit; disk orbicular, entire; ovary ovoid or spherical, with conspicuous raised scales; styles 3, free, bifid at apex, lobes revolute. Capsules globose, 2-2.5 mm in diam., with reddish blotches, scurfy-tuberculate. Seed 3-sided, 1-1.2 × 0.9-1 mm, light grayish brown, with 12-15 sharp transverse ridges on back and sides, often with 1-3 deep circular pits on side. Fl. Apr-Jun, fr. Jul-Nov.
Dry fields, roadsides, wastelands, forest margins; below 100-600 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; South America].




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