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笃斯越橘Vaccinium uliginosum

时间:2013-09-09 11:53来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):笃斯越橘 学名( Scientific Name ): Vaccinium uliginosum Linn. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 笃斯、黑豆树、甸果、地果、龙果、蛤塘果 异名( Synonym ): Vaccinium uliginosum var
中文名(Chinese Name):笃斯越橘
学名(Scientific Name): Vaccinium uliginosum Linn.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):笃斯、黑豆树、甸果、地果、龙果、蛤塘果
异名(Synonym):Vaccinium uliginosum var. album J. Y. Ma et Yue Zhang  Vaccinium occidentalis Gray  Vaccinium occidentale Gray  Vaccinium uliginosum var. alpinum Bigelow  Vaccinium uliginosum var. occidentale (Gray) Hara  Vaccinium uliginosum var. salicinum (Cham.) Hultén  Vaccinium uliginosum subsp. alpinum (Bigelow) Hultén  Vaccinium uliginosum subsp. gaultherioides (Bigelow) S.B. Young  Vaccinium uliginosum subsp. microphyllum Lange  Vaccinium uliginosum subsp. occidentale (Gray) Hultén  Vaccinium uliginosum subsp. pedris (Harshberger) S.B. Young  Vaccinium uliginosum subsp. pubescens (Wormsk. ex Hornem.) S.B. Young  Vaccinium gaultherioides Bigelow  Vaccinium pedris Holub  Vaccinium pubescens Wormsk. ex Hornem.  Vaccinium uliginosum f. pubescens (Wormsk. ex Hornem.) Polunin  Vaccinium uliginosum var. gaultherioides (Bigelow) Bigelow  Vaccinium uliginosum var. pedris Harshb.  Vaccinium uliginosum var. pubescens (Wormsk. ex Hornem.) Hornem.
科属(Family & Genus):杜鹃花科(Ericaceae)越橘属
形态特征(Description):落叶灌木,高0.5-1米(生于高山者植株高仅10-15厘米);多分枝。茎短而细瘦,幼枝有微柔毛,老枝无毛。叶多数,散生,叶片纸质,倒卵形,椭圆形至长圆形,长1-2.8厘米,宽0.6-1.5厘米,顶端圆形,有时微凹,基部宽楔形或楔形,全缘,表面近于无毛,背面微被柔毛,中脉、侧脉和网脉均纤细,在表面平坦,在背面突起;叶柄短,长1-2毫米,被微毛。花下垂,1-3朵着生于去年生枝顶叶腋;花梗0.5-1厘米,顶端与萼筒之间无关节,下部有2小苞片,小苞片着生处有关节;萼筒无毛,萼齿4-5,三角状卵形,长约1毫米;花冠绿白色,宽坛状,长约5毫米,4-5浅裂;雄蕊10,比花冠略短,花丝无毛,药室背部有2距。浆果近球形或椭圆形,直径约1厘米,成熟时蓝紫色,被白粉。花期6月,果期7-8月。
分布(Distribution):产大兴安岭北部(黑龙江、内蒙古)、吉林长白山。生于山坡落叶松林下、林缘,高山草原,沼泽湿地,海拔900-2 300米。亚洲分布朝鲜、日本、苏联,欧洲南、北均有,北美洲分布于东北至西北;生于针叶林,泥炭沼泽,亚高山苔原和牧场,也是石南灌丛的重要成分。
用途(Use):果实较大,酸甜,味佳,可用以酿酒及制果酱,也可制成饮料。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 14 Page 502      
Vaccinium uliginosum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 350. 1753.
笃斯越桔 du si yue ju | Ericaceae  | Vaccinium
Vaccinium uliginosum var. album J. Y. Ma & Yue Zhang.
Shrubs deciduous, 0.5–1 m tall, alpine populations usually 10–15 cm tall, much branched, rhizomatous. Twigs terete, puberulous to glabrous. Leaves scattered; petiole ca. 2 mm, puberulous; leaf blade obovate or elliptic to oblong, 1–3 × 0.6–1.5 cm, papery, abaxially glaucous, puberulous, adaxially subglabrous, secondary veins 3–5 pairs, fine veins evident especially abaxially, base cuneate or broadly cuneate, margin plane, entire, with 1 basal gland per side, apex rounded, sometimes retuse. Inflorescences fasciculate, at end of shoot, 1–3-flowered; bracts caducous, 1.5–2.5 mm. Pedicel ca. 5 mm, glabrous. Flowers 4- or 5-merous. Hypanthium ca. 0.8 mm, glabrous; calyx lobes 4 or 5, triangular-ovate, ca. 1 mm. Corolla greenish white, broadly urceolate, ca. 5 mm, glabrous; lobes triangular, ca. 1 mm. Filaments ca. 1 mm, glabrous; anthers ca. 1.5 mm, thecae with 2 spurs, tubules slightly shorter than thecae. Berry 4- or 5-loculed, bluish purple, subglobose or ellipsoidal, with a bloom, ca. 1 cm in diam. Fl. Jun, fr. Jul–Aug. 2n = 24, 48.
Larix forests, forest margins, meadow-moors, alpine steppes; 900–2300 m. N Heilongjiang (Da Hinggan Ling), S Jilin (Changbai Shan), NE Nei Mongol (Da Hinggan Ling) [Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Russia; Europe, North America].
The berry is nutritious and has a sweetish taste.






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