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满山红Rhododendron mariesii

时间:2013-09-09 11:42来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 满山红 学名( Scientific Name ): Rhododendron mariesii Hemsl. et Wils. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 山石榴、马礼士杜鹃 异名( Synonym ): Rhododendron gnaphalocarpum Hayata
中文名(Chinese Name):满山红
学名(Scientific Name):Rhododendron mariesii Hemsl. et Wils.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):山石榴、马礼士杜鹃
异名(Synonym):Rhododendron gnaphalocarpum Hayata  Rhododendron shojoense Hayata  Rhododendron daiyuenshanicum Tam  Rhododendron daiyunicum Tam  Rhododendron farrerae var. mediocre Diels  Rhododendron farrerae var. weyrichii Diels  Rhododendron umbelliferum H. Lév.
科属(Family & Genus):杜鹃花科(Ericaceae)杜鹃属
形态特征(Description):落叶灌木,高1-4米;枝轮生,幼时被淡黄棕色柔毛,成长时无毛。叶厚纸质或近于革质,常2-3集生枝顶,椭圆形,卵状披针形或三角状卵形,长4-7.5厘米,宽2-4厘米,先端锐尖,具短尖头,基部钝或近于圆形,边缘微反卷,初时具细钝齿,后不明显,上面深绿色,下面淡绿色,幼时两面均被淡黄棕色长柔毛,后无毛或近于无毛,叶脉在上面凹陷,下面凸出,细脉与中脉或侧脉间的夹角近于90°;叶柄长5-7毫米,近于无毛。花芽卵球形,鳞片阔卵形,顶端钝尖,外面沿中脊以上被淡黄棕色绢状柔毛,边缘具睫毛。花通常2朵顶生,先花后叶,出自于同一顶生花芽;花梗直立,常为芽鳞所包,长7-10毫米,密被黄褐色柔毛;花萼环状,5浅裂,密被黄褐色柔毛;花冠漏斗形,淡紫红色或紫红色,长3-3.5厘米,花冠管长约1厘米,基部径4毫米,裂片5,深裂,长圆形,先端钝圆,上方裂片具紫红色斑点,两面无毛;雄蕊8-10,不等长,比花冠短或与花冠等长,花丝扁平,无毛,花药紫红色;子房卵球形,密被淡黄棕色长柔毛,花柱比雄蕊长,无毛。蒴果椭圆状卵球形,长6-9毫米,稀达1.8厘米,密被亮棕褐色长柔毛。花期4-5月,果期6-11月。
分布(Distribution):产河北、陕西、江苏、安徽、浙江、江西、福建、台湾、河南、湖北、湖南、广东、广西、四川和贵州。生于海拔600-1500米的山地稀疏灌丛。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 14 
Rhododendron mariesii Hemsley & E. H. Wilson, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew. 1907: 244. 1907.
满山红 man shan hong  | Apiaceae  | Rhododendron
Rhododendron daiyuenshanicum P. C. Tam, nom. illeg. superfl.; R. daiyunicum P. C. Tam; R. farrerae Sweet var. mediocre Diels; R. gnaphalocarpum Hayata; R. shojoense Hayata; R. umbelliferum H. Léveillé.
Shrubs, deciduous, 1–3 m tall; branches verticillate, softly yellowish-brown hairy, glabrescent. Petiole 5–7 mm, glabrescent; leaf blade papery to almost leathery, elliptic, ovate-lanceolate or triangular-ovate, 4–7.5 × 2–4 cm; base obtuse or subrounded; margin slightly revolute; apex acute and mucronate; both surfaces yellowish brown-villous, glabrescent, rarely abaxial surface thinly persistently floccose. Inflorescence usually 2-flowered: flowers appearing before the leaves. Pedicel 0.7–1 cm, densely softly yellow-brown hairy; calyx shallowly lobed, densely softly yellow-brown hairy; corolla funnelform, purplish red, with purple-red flecks on upper lobes, 3–3.5 cm; tube ca. 4 mm in diam.; lobes deeply divided, oblong, both surfaces glabrous; apex obtuse and rounded; stamens 8–10, unequal, shorter than, or as long as the corolla, filaments flat, glabrous; ovary ovoid, densely yellow-brown villous; style longer than stamens, glabrous. Capsule ellipsoid-ovoid, 6–9(–18) mm, densely shiny-brown-villous. Fl. Apr–May, fr. Jun–Nov.
Open forests, submontane regions; 600–1500 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hebei, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Zhejiang.
Rhododendron daiyunicum is probably a distinct species. The name R. daiyuenshanicum was published a year later based on the same type.
Specimens collected in Hubei by Henry were referred by Diels (Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 29: 513. 1900) to Rhododendron farrerae var. weyrichii (Maximowicz) Diels. This species (R. weyrichii Maximowicz) is exclusively Japanese. The Chinese specimens cited by Diels were mentioned in the protologue of R. mariesii, and one is probably the type of the latter name.






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