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小米Setaria italica

时间:2013-11-11 07:55来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 小米 学名( Scientific Name ): Setaria italica (Linn.) Beauv. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 粱,黄粟、谷子 异名( Synonym ): Chamaeraphis italica (L.) Kuntze Chamaeraphis i
中文名(Chinese Name):小米
学名(Scientific Name):Setaria italica (Linn.) Beauv.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):粱,黄粟、谷子
异名(Synonym):Chamaeraphis italica (L.) Kuntze  Chamaeraphis italica var. germanica (Mill.) Kuntze  Panicum chinense Trin.  Pennisetum italicum (L.) R. Br.  Pennisetum germanicum (Mill.) Baumg.  Setaria germanica (Mill.) P. Beauv.  Chaetochloa germanica (Mill.) Smyth  Chaetochloa italica (L.) Scribner  Setaria italica var. metzgeri (Koern.) Jáv.  Setaria italica var. stramineofructa (F.T. Hubbard) Bailey  Panicum globulare (J.Presl) Steud.  Setaria melinis Link ex Steud.  Setaria italica subsp. moharica (Alef.) H.Scholz  Panicum italicum var. longisetum Döll  Panicum italicum var. erythrospermum Körn. & F.A.Werner  Panicum panis (Jess.) Jess.  Setaria itieri Delile  Setaria panis Jess.  Panicum italicum var. nigrum Körn.   Panicum itieri (Delile) Steud.  Pennisetum macrochaetum J.Jacq.  Setaria pachystachya Borbás  Setaria multiseta Dumort.  Setaria globularis J.Presl  Panicum moharicum (Alef.) E.H.L.Krause  Setaria italica subsp. nigrofructa F.T.Hubb.  Setaria italica subsp. rubrofructa F.T.Hubb.  Setaria italica subsp. stramineofructa F.T.Hubb.  Alopecurus caudatus Thunb.  Setariopsis italica (L.) Samp.  Setaria italica subsp. moharia (Alef.) H.Scholz  Penicillaria italica (L.) Oken  Panicum vulgare Wallr.  Setaria japonica Pynaert  Panicum asiaticum Schult. & Schult.f.  Setaria viridis subsp. italica (L.) Briq.  Panicum melfrugum Schult. & Schult.f.  Ixophorus italicus (L.) Nash  Panicum maritimum Lam.  Setaria californica Kellogg  Echinochloa erythrosperma Roem. & Schult.  Panicum verticillatum var. major Thunb.  Panicum viride subsp. italicum (L.) Asch. & Graebn.  Setaria persica Rchb.  Setaria violacea Hornem. ex Rchb.  Setaria maritima (Lam.) Roem. & Schult.  Setaria asiatica Rchb.  Echinochloa intermedia Roem. & Schult.  Panicum sibiricum Roem. & Schult.  Setaria moharica Menabde & Erizin  Panicum italicum var. inerme Döll  Paspalum germanicum (Mill.) Baumg.  Panicum erythrospermum Vahl ex Hornem.  Oplismenus intermedius (Hornem.) Kunth  Setaria compacta Schur  Setaria italica subsp. colchica Maisaya & Gorgidze  Setaria italica var. moharia (Alef.) A.Zimm.  Panicum viride var. italicum (L.) Backer  Pennisetum erythrospermum (Vahl ex Hornem.) Jacq.  Setaria italica var. colchica Dekapr. & Kaspar.  Setaria italica var. nigrofructa (K?rn. & H. Werner) L.H. Bailey  Setaria italica var. rubrofructa (F.T. Hubb.) L.H. Bailey
科属Family & Genus):禾本科Gramineae狗尾草属Setaria
形态特征Description):一年生。须根粗大。秆粗壮,直立,高0.1-1米或更高。叶鞘松裹茎秆,密具疣毛或无毛,毛以近边缘及与叶片交接处的背面为密,边缘密具纤毛;叶舌为一圈纤毛;叶片长披针形或线状披针形,长10-45厘米,宽5-33毫米,先端尖,基部钝圆,上面粗糙,下面稍光滑。圆锥花序呈圆柱状或近纺缍状,通常下垂,基部多少有间断,长10-40厘米,宽1-5厘米,常因品种的不同而多变异,主轴密生柔毛,刚毛显著长于或稍长于小穗,黄色、褐色或紫色;小穗椭圆形或近圆球形,长2-3毫米,黄色、桔红色或紫色;第一颖长为小穗的1/3-1/2,具3脉;第二颖稍短于或长为小穗的3/4,先端钝,具5-9脉;第一外稃与小穗等长,具5-7脉,其内稃薄纸质,披针形,长为其2/3,第二外稃等长于第一外稃,卵圆形或圆球形,质坚硬,平滑或具细点状皱纹,成熟后,自第一外稃基部和颖分离脱落;鳞被先端不平,呈微波状;花柱基部分离;叶表皮细胞同狗尾草类型。
分布(Distribution):广泛栽培于欧亚大陆的温带和热带,我国黄河中上游为主要栽培区,其他地区也有少量栽种。模式标本产于印度。
用途(Use):本种是我国北方人民的主要粮食之一
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 22 Page 532, 535, 536  
Setaria italica (Linnaeus) P. Beauvois, Ess. Agrostogr. 51. 1812.
小米xiao mi| Poaceae  | Setaria
Panicum italicum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 56. 1753; Chae-tochloa germanica (Miller) Smyth; C. italica (Linnaeus) Scribner; C. italica var. germanica (Miller) Scribner; Chamaeraphis italica (Linnaeus) Kuntze; C. italica var. germanica (Miller) Kuntze; Panicum chinense Trinius; P. germanicum Miller; P. italicum var. germanicum (Miller) Koeler; Pennisetum germa-nicum (Miller) Baumgarten; P. italicum (Linnaeus) R. Brown; Setaria germanica (Miller) P. Beauvois.
Annual. Culms robust, erect, up to 150 cm, nodes glabrous. Leaf sheaths glabrous or pubescent, ciliate; leaf blades linear-lanceolate, 15–45 × 0.6–2 cm, usually glabrous; ligule 1–3 mm. Panicle dense, lobed, 6–40 × 0.5–5 cm, very variable, erect or pendent when mature; spikelets subtended by several bristles 1–5 times spikelet length; axis villous. Spikelets elliptic to ovate or subglobose, 2–3 mm, yellow, brown, orange or purple; lower glume 1/3–1/2 as long as spikelet; upper glume about as long as spikelet, 5–7(–9)-veined, obtuse; lower lemma equal to spikelet, 5–7-veined; lower palea absent or narrow, up to 1/2 as long as lemma; upper floret yellow or orange-yellow, oblong or ovate-oblong, cartilaginous, deciduous at maturity, finely rugose to smooth and shiny. Fl. and fr. summer to autumn. 2n = 18.
Cultivated. Anhui, Beijing, Fujian, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [origin uncertain; now introduced and cultivated sporadically worldwide].
This grass (Foxtail Millet) has been cultivated as a cereal in China since ancient times and exists in many races differing in size, shape, and hairiness of the panicle, color of the grain, and length of the bristles. It is also a useful forage grass. It is thought to be derived from Setaria viri-dis.



 
 
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