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黄瓜Cucumis sativus

时间:2013-11-11 07:57来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 黄瓜 学名( Scientific Name ): Cucumis sativus Linn. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 胡瓜 异名( Synonym ): Cucumis esculentus Salisb. Cucumis muricatus Willd. Cucumis rumphi
中文名(Chinese Name):黄瓜
学名(Scientific Name):Cucumis sativus Linn.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):胡瓜
异名(Synonym):Cucumis esculentus Salisb.  Cucumis muricatus Willd.  Cucumis rumphii Hassk.  Cucumis sativus f. australis Kitam.  Cucumis sativus f. borealis Kitam.  Cucumis sativus f. brunnescens Gabaev  Cucumis sativus f. pallescens Gabaev  Cucumis sativus f. tuberculatus Hiro?  Cucumis sativus f. typicus Gabaev  Cucumis sativus f. viridis Gabaev  Cucumis sativus subsp. agrestis Gabaev  Cucumis sativus subsp. gracilior Gabaev  Cucumis sativus subsp. rigidus Gabaev  Cucumis sativus var. albus Ser.  Cucumis sativus var. anatolicus Gabaev  Cucumis sativus var. anglicus L.H. Bailey  Cucumis sativus var. arakis Forssk.  Cucumis sativus var. battich-djebbal Forssk.  Cucumis sativus var. brullos Forssk.  Cucumis sativus var. chatte Forssk.  Cucumis sativus var. chiar Forssk.  Cucumis sativus var. cilicicus Gabaev  Cucumis sativus var. ennemis Forssk.  Cucumis sativus var. europaeus Gabaev  Cucumis sativus var. fakus Forssk.  Cucumis sativus var. falcatus Gabaev  Cucumis sativus var. fastigiatus Ser.  Cucumis sativus var. flavus Ser.  Cucumis sativus var. grossularioides Tkachenko  Cucumis sativus var. indo-europeus Gabaev  Cucumis sativus var. irano-turanicus Gabaev  Cucumis sativus var. izmir Gabaev  Cucumis sativus var. pallidus Gabaev  Cucumis sativus var. schemmam Forssk.  Cucumis sativus var. squamosus Gabaev  Cucumis sativus var. testudaceus Gabaev  Cucumis sativus var. tuberculatus Gabaev  Cucumis sativus var. variegatus Ser.  Cucumis sativus var. viridis Ser.  Cucumis sativus var. vulgatus Gabaev  Cucumis sativus var. xishuangbannanesis Qi Chunzhang & Yuan Zhenzhen  Cucumis setosus Cogn.  Cucumis sphaerocarpus Gabaev  Cucumis vilmorinii Spreng.
科属Family & Genus):葫芦科Cucurbitaceae黄瓜属Cucumis
形态特征Description):一年生蔓生或攀援草本;茎、枝伸长,有棱沟,被白色的糙硬毛。卷须细,不分歧,具白色柔毛。叶柄稍粗糙,有糙硬毛,长10-16 (-20) 厘米;叶片宽卵状心形,膜质,长、宽均7-20厘米,两面甚粗糙,被糙硬毛,3-5个角或浅裂,裂片三角形,有齿,有时边缘有缘毛,先端急尖或渐尖,基部弯缺半圆形,宽2-3厘米,深2-2.5厘米,有时基部向后靠合。雌雄同株。雄花:常数朵在叶腋簇生;花梗纤细,长0.5-1.5厘米,被微柔毛;花萼筒狭钟状或近圆筒状,长8-10毫米,密被白色的长柔毛,花萼裂片钻形,开展,与花萼筒近等长;花冠黄白色,长约2厘米,花冠裂片长圆状披针形,急尖;雄蕊3,花丝近无,花药长3-4毫米,药隔伸出,长约1毫米。雌花:单生或稀簇生;花梗粗壮,被柔毛,长1-2厘米;子房纺锤形,粗糙,有小刺状突起。果实长圆形或圆柱形,长10-30 (-50) 厘米,熟时黄绿色,表面粗糙,有具刺尖的瘤状突起,极稀近于平滑。种子小,狭卵形,白色,无边缘,两端近急尖,长约5-10毫米。花果期夏季。
分布(Distribution):我国各地普遍栽培,且许多地区均有温室或塑料大棚栽培;现广泛种植于温带和热带地区。
用途(Use):果为我国各地夏季主要菜蔬之一。茎藤药用,能消炎、祛痰、镇痉。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 19 Page 49
Cucumis sativus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1012. 1753.
黄瓜 huang gua | Cucurbitaceae  | Cucumis
Plants scandent or creeping. Stem and branches angular, white hispid. Tendrils slender, simple. Petiole 10-16(-20) cm; leaf blade broadly ovate-cordate, 7-20 × 7-20 cm, membranous, margin 3-5-angular or -lobed; lobes triangular, dentate, apex acute or acuminate; sinus half-orbicular. Plants monoecious. Male flowers fasciculate; pedicel filiform, 5-15 mm, puberulent; calyx tube narrowly campanulate, 8-10 mm, densely white pubescent; segments subulate; corolla yellow-white, ca. 2 cm; segments oblong-lanceolate, acute; anthers 3-4 mm; connective ca. 1 mm. Female flowers solitary or fascicled; pedicels pubescent, 1-2 cm; ovary fusiform, muricate. Fruit yellow-green, oblong or cylindric, (5-)10-30(-50) cm, muricate, usually verrucose. Seeds white, small, narrowly ovate, 5-10 mm, emarginate, both ends acute. Fl. and fr. summer.
Forests, thickets, mountain slopes; 700-2000 m. Guangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan; also commonly cultivated in China [NE India, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand; cultivated in all tropical and temperate countries].
 






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