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香橼Citrus medica

时间:2013-11-11 08:20作者:徐晔春 点击: 次 标签: 芸香科 Rutaceae 柑橘属 Citrus
  中文名(Chinese Name):香橼
学名(Scientific Name):Citrus medica Linn.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):拘橼,枸橼子
异名(Synonym):Aurantium medicum (L.) M. Gómez  Citreum vulgare Tourn. ex Mill.  Citrus cedra Link  Citrus cedrata Raf.  Citrus crassa Hassk.  Citrus alata (Tanaka) Yu.Tanaka  Citrus fragrans Salisb.  Citrus gongra Raf.  Citrus grandis var. pyriformis (Hassk.) Karaya  Citrus aurantium var. bergamia (Risso) Brandis  Citrus aurantium var. proper Guillaumin  Citrus aurantium var. tamurana Yu.Tanaka  Citrus balotina Poit. & Turpin  Citrus bicolor Poit. & Turpin  Citrus bigena Poit. & Turpin  Citrus hassaku Yu.Tanaka  Citrus hiroshimana Yu.Tanaka  Citrus kizu Yu.Tanaka  Citrus limetta subsp. murcica S.Ríos & al.  Citrus limon var. digitata Risso  Citrus limonimedica Lush.  Citrus lumia Risso  Citrus medica f. monstrosa Guillaumin  Citrus medica f. sudachi (Shirai) M.Hiroe  Citrus medica subsp. bajoum H. Perrier  Citrus medica subsp. limonia (Risso) Hook. f.  Citrus medica var. alata Yu.Tanaka  Citrus medica var. digitata Risso  Citrus medica var. dulcis Risso & Poit.  Citrus medica var. ethrog Engl.  Citrus medica var. nana Wester  Citrus medica var. proper Hook.f.  Citrus medica var. sarcodactylus (Siebold ex Hoola van Nooten) Swingle  Citrus nana (Wester) Yu.Tanaka  Citrus odorata Roussel  Citrus pyriformis Hassk.  Citrus sarcodactylus Siebold ex Hoola van Nooten  Citrus sudachi Yu.Tanaka  Citrus tuberosa Mill.  Limon racemosum Mill.  Limon spinosum Mill.  Limon vulgaris Ferrarius ex Miller  Sarcodactilis helicteroides Gaertn.
科属Family & Genus):芸香科Rutaceae柑橘属Citrus
形态特征Description):不规则分枝的灌木或小乔木。新生嫩枝、芽及花蕾均暗紫红色,茎枝多刺,刺长达4厘米。单叶,稀兼有单身复叶,则有关节,但无翼叶;叶柄短,叶片椭圆形或卵状椭圆形,长6-12厘米,宽3-6厘米,或有更大,顶部圆或钝,稀短尖,叶缘有浅钝裂齿。总状花序有花达12朵,有时兼有腋生单花;花两性,有单性花趋向,则雌蕊退化;花瓣5片,长1.5-2厘米;雄蕊30-50枚;子房圆筒状,花柱粗长,柱头头状,果椭圆形、近圆形或两端狭的纺锤形,重可达2 000克,果皮淡黄色,粗糙,甚厚或颇薄,难剥离,内皮白色或略淡黄色,棉质,松软,瓢囊10-15瓣,果肉无色,近于透明或淡乳黄色,爽脆,味酸或略甜,有香气;种子小,平滑,子叶乳白色,多或单胚。花期4-5月,果期10-11月。
分布Distribution):产台湾、福建、广东、广西、云南等省区南部较多栽种。越南、老挝、缅甸、印度等也有。
用途(Use):香橼是中药,其干片有清香气,味略苦而微甜,性温,无毒。理气宽中,消胀降痰。
引自中国植物志英文版: FOC Vol. 11 Page 91, 93, 94, 95
Citrus medica Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 782. 1753.
香橼 xiang yuan| Rutaceae  | Citrus
Aurantium medicum (Linnaeus) M. Gómez; Citreum vulgare Tournefort ex Miller; Citrus alata (Yu. Tanaka) Tanaka; C. ×aurantium Linnaeus subvar. amilbed Engler; C. ×aurantium subvar. chakotra Engler; C. cedra Link; C. cedrata Rafinesque; C. fragrans Salisbury; ?C. kwangsiensis Hu; C. ×limon (Linnaeus) Osbeck var. digitata Risso; C. medica var. alata Yu. Tanaka; C. medica var. digitata Risso; C. medica var. ethrog Engler; C. medica f. monstrosa Guillaumin; C. medica var. proper J. D. Hooker; C. medica var. sarcodactylis (Hoola van Nooten) Swingle; C. odorata Roussel; C. sarcodactylis Hoola van Nooten; C. tuberosa Miller; Sarcodactilis helicteroides C. F. Gaertner.
Shrubs or small trees. Branches, leaf buds, and flower buds purplish when young. Branches with ca. 4 cm spines. Leaves simple or rarely 1-foliolate; petiole short, not winged; leaf blade elliptic to ovate-elliptic, 6-12 × 3-6 cm or larger, margin serrate, apex rounded, obtuse, or rarely mucronate. Inflorescences axillary, ca. 12-flowered or sometimes flowers solitary. Flowers bisexual or sometimes male by ± complete abortion of pistil. Petals 5, 1.5-2 cm. Stamens 30-50. Ovary cylindric; style long and thick; stigma clavate. Fruit pale yellow, elliptic to subglobose, to 2 kg, surface coarse; pericarp white to pale yellow and soft within, thicker than sarcocarp, removed with difficulty; sarcocarp with 10-15 segments, colorless, nearly pellucid to pale milky yellow, acidic to slightly sweet, fragrant. Seeds small; seed coat smooth; embryo(s) solitary to several; cotyledons milky white. Fl. Apr-May, fr. Oct-Nov. 2n = 18, 20.
Cultivated and sometimes naturalized. Guangxi, SW Guizhou, Hainan, Sichuan, E Xizang, Yunnan [native to NE India and possibly Myanmar].
This species is a parent with Citrus ×aurantium of C. ×limon and with ?C. hystrix of C. ×aurantiifolia.
The Buddha-hand Citron (佛手 fo shou), with separated segments ± surrounded by pericarp, is best treated as a cultivar, correctly Citrus medica ‘Fingered.’
 


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