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茴香Foeniculum vulgare

时间:2013-11-10 09:52来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 茴香 学名( Scientific Name ): Foeniculum vulgare Mill. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 小茴香 异名( Synonym ): Foeniculum officinale All. Ligusticum foeniculum Crantz Aneth
中文名(Chinese Name):茴香
学名(Scientific Name):Foeniculum vulgare Mill.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):小茴香
异名(Synonym):Foeniculum officinale All.  Ligusticum foeniculum Crantz  Anethum pannorium Roxb.  Foeniculum pannorium (Roxb.) DC.  Seseli foeniculum (L.) Koso-Pol.  Meum foeniculum (L.) Spreng.  Selinum foeniculum (L.) E. H. L. Krause  Foeniculum foeniculum (L.) Karst.  Anethum dulce DC.  Anethum minus Gouan  Anethum panmori Roxb.  Anethum panmorium Roxb. ex Fleming  Anethum rupestre Salisb.  Foeniculum azoricum Mill.  Foeniculum capillaceum Gilib.  Foeniculum divaricatum Griseb.  Foeniculum dulce Mill.  Foeniculum giganteum Lojac.  Foeniculum panmorium (Roxb.) DC.  Foeniculum piperitum (Ucria) C.Presl  Foeniculum rigidum Brot. ex Steud.  Foeniculum scoparium Quézel  Foeniculum vulgare subsp. piperitum (Ucria) Cout.  Foeniculum vulgare subsp. sativum (C.Presl) Janch. ex Holub  Foeniculum vulgare var. sativum C.Presl  Meum piperitum Schult.  Ozodia foeniculacea Wight & Arn.  Seseli dulce Koso-Pol.  Seseli piperitum Koso-Pol.  Tenoria romana Schkuhr ex Spreng. 
科属(Family & Genus):伞形科Umbelliferae茴香属Foeniculum
形态特征(Description):草本,高0.4-2米。茎直立,光滑,灰绿色或苍白色,多分枝。较下部的茎生叶柄长5-15厘米,中部或上部的叶柄部分或全部成鞘状,叶鞘边缘膜质;叶片轮廓为阔三角形,长4-30厘米,宽5-40厘米,4-5回羽状全裂,末回裂片线形,长1-6厘米,宽约1毫米。复伞形花序顶生与侧生,花序梗长2-25厘米;伞辐6-29,不等长,长1.5-10厘米;小伞形花序有花14-39;花柄纤细,不等长;无萼齿;花瓣黄色,倒卵形或近倒卵圆形,长约1毫米,先端有内折的小舌片,中脉1条;花丝略长于花瓣,花药卵圆形,淡黄色;花柱基圆锥形,花柱极短,向外叉开或贴伏在花柱基上。果实长圆形,长4-6毫米,宽1.5-2.2毫米,主棱5条,尖锐;每棱槽内有油管1,合生面油管2;胚乳腹面近平直或微凹。花期5-6月,果期7-9月。
分布(Distribution):原产地中海地区。我国各省区都有栽培。
用途(Use):嫩叶可作蔬菜食用或作调味用。果实入药,有驱风祛痰、散寒、健胃和止痛之效。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 14 Page 134
Foeniculum vulgare (Linnaeus) Miller, Gard. Dict., ed. 8. Foeniculum no. 1. 1768.
茴香 hui xiang | Apiaceae  | Foeniculum
Anethum foeniculum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 263. 1753; A. pannorium Roxburgh; Foeniculum officinale Allioni; F. pannorium (Roxburgh) de Candolle; Ligusticum foeniculum (Linnaeus) Crantz; Meum foeniculum (Linnaeus) Sprengel; Selinum foeniculum (Linnaeus) E. H. L. Krause; Seseli foeniculum (Linnaeus) Koso-Poljansky.
Plants 0.4–2 m. Lower petioles 5–15 cm; blade broadly triangular in outline, 4–30 × 5–40 cm, 4–5-pinnatisect; ultimate segments linear, 1–6 × ca. 0.1 mm. Umbels 5–9 cm across; peduncles 2–25 cm; rays 6–29(–40), unequal, 1.5–10 cm; umbellules 14–39-flowered; pedicels thin, 2–10 mm, unequal. Fruit 4–6(–10) × 1.5–2.2(–2.5) mm. Fl. May–Jun, fr. Jul–Sep.
Cultivated and adventive; 200–2600 m. Throughout China [native to the Mediterranean region; cultivated and adventive worldwide].
The stem, leaves, and fruit are commonly used as the dietary herb “xiao hui xiang” in traditional Chinese medicine to aid digestion. The leaves are used for flavoring and the fruits are used as a spice (fennel).
 




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