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辣椒Capsicum annuum

时间:2013-11-09 16:51来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):辣椒 学名( Scientific Name ): Capsicum annuum L. 英文名( English Common Name ): cayenne pepper 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 异名( Synonym ): Capsicum annuum var. grossum (Linn.) Sendt. Capsicum annuum
中文名(Chinese Name):辣椒
学名(Scientific Name):Capsicum annuum L.
英文名(English Common Name):cayenne pepper
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Capsicum annuum var. grossum (Linn.) Sendt.  Capsicum annuum var. fasciculatum (Sturt.) Irish  Capsicum frutescens Linn.  Capsicum conoide Mill.  Capsicum fasciculatum Sturtev.  Capsicum frutescens var. fasciculatum L. H. Bailey  Capsicum frutescens var. grossum L. H. Bailey  Capsicum frutescens var. longum L. H. Bailey  Capsicum annuum var. conoide (Mill.) Irish  Capsicum longum A. DC.  Capsicum grossum L.  Capsicum abyssinicum A.Rich.  Capsicum angulosum Mill.  Capsicum annuum f. chlorocarpum Kuntze  Capsicum annuum f. erectum Makino  Capsicum annuum f. leucocarpum Kuntze  Capsicum annuum f. luteum Kuntze  Capsicum annuum f. nigrum Makino  Capsicum annuum f. pendulum Makino  Capsicum annuum f. violaceum Kuntze  Capsicum annuum subsp. microcarpon Dierb.  Capsicum annuum var. abbreviata Fingerh.  Capsicum annuum var. abbreviatum Fingerh.  Capsicum annuum var. acuminatum Fingerh.  Capsicum annuum var. aviculare (Dierb.) D'Arcy & Eschbaugh  Capsicum annuum var. conicum (G.Mey.) Voss  Capsicum annuum var. cordiforme Edwall  Capsicum annuum var. frutescens (L.) Kuntze  Capsicum annuum var. globiferum (G.Mey.) Voss  Capsicum annuum var. longum (DC.) Sendtn.  Capsicum annuum var. minimum (Mill.) Heiser  Capsicum annuum var. oblongoconicum (Dunal) Cufod.  Capsicum annuum var. parvoacuminatum Makino  Capsicum axi Vell.  Capsicum bauhinii Dunal  Capsicum caerulescens Besser  Capsicum ceratocarpum Fingerh.  Capsicum cereolum Bertol.  Capsicum comarim Vell.  Capsicum conoides Roem. & Schult.  Capsicum conoideum var. chordale Fingerh.  Capsicum conoideum var. oblongoconicum Dunal  Capsicum conoideum var. sulcatum Fingerh.  Capsicum conoideum Mill.  Capsicum cordiforme Mill.  Capsicum crispum Dunal  Capsicum cydoniforme Roem. & Schult.  Capsicum dulce Dunal  Capsicum fastigiatum Blume  Capsicum frutescens var. cerasiforme (Mill.) L.H.Bailey  Capsicum frutescens var. frutescens   Capsicum frutescens var. glabriusculum (Dunal) M.R.Almeida  Capsicum frutescens var. lanicaule Greenm.  Capsicum frutescens var. minus Fingerh.  Capsicum frutescens var. queenslandicum Domin  Capsicum globiferum G.Mey.  Capsicum globosum Besser  Capsicum indicum subsp. elaeocarpon Dierb.  Capsicum indicum var. aviculare Dierb.  Capsicum indicum var. conoideum (Mill.) Dierb.  Capsicum indicum var. ribesium Dierb.  Capsicum indicum auct.  Capsicum milleri Roem. & Schult.  Capsicum odoratum Steud.  Capsicum odoriferum Vell.  Capsicum oliviforme Mill.  Capsicum ovatum DC.  Capsicum petenense Standl.  Capsicum pomiferum Mart. ex Steud.  Capsicum pyramidale Mill.  Capsicum quitense Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.  Capsicum silvestre Vell.  Capsicum sphaerium Willd.  Capsicum tetragonum Mill.  Capsicum tomatiforme Fingerh. ex Steud.  Capsicum tournefortii Besser  Capsicum ustulatum Paxton  Piper indicum Garsault
科属Family & Genus):茄科(Solanaceae)辣椒属
形态特征Description):一年生或有限多年生植物;高40-80厘米。茎近无毛或微生柔毛,分枝稍之字形折曲。叶互生,枝顶端节不伸长而成双生或簇生状,矩圆状卵形、卵形或卵状披针形,长4-13厘米,宽1.5-4厘米,全缘,顶端短渐尖或急尖,基部狭楔形;叶柄长4-7厘米。花单生,俯垂;花萼杯状,不显著5齿;花冠白色,裂片卵形;花药灰紫色。果梗较粗壮,俯垂;果实长指状,顶端渐尖且常弯曲,未成熟时绿色,成熟后成红色、橙色或紫红色,味辣。种子扁肾形,长3-5毫米,淡黄色。花果期5-11月。
分布(Distribution):
用途(Use):我国已有数百年栽培历史,为重要的蔬菜和调味品,种子油可食用、果亦有驱虫和发汗之药效。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 17 Page 313   
Capsicum annuum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 188. 1753.
辣椒 la jiao| Solanaceae  | Capsicum
Capsicum annuum var. conoide (Miller) Irish; C. annuum var. fasciculatum (Sturtevant) Irish; C. annuum var. grossum (Linnaeus) Sendtner; C. conoide Miller; C. fasciculatum Sturtevant; C. frutescens Linnaeus; C. frutescens var. fasciculatum L. Bailey; C. frutescens var. longum L. Bailey; C. frutescens var. grossum L. Bailey; C. grossum Linnaeus; C. longum de Candolle.
Shrubs or annual or perennial herbs, 20-80 cm tall. Stems glabrescent. Leaves solitary or paired; petiole 4-7 cm; leaf blade oblong-ovate, ovate, or ovate-lanceolate, 4-13 × 1.5-4 cm, glabrescent, base narrowed, margin entire, apex short acuminate or acute. Inflorescences solitary flowers or few-flowered clusters. Pedicel bent at apex, 1-2 cm. Calyx cup-shaped, undulate, 2-3 × 3 mm. Corolla white, ca. 1 cm. Anthers purplish, 1.8-2 mm. Berry mostly red (orange, yellow, or purple in cultivation), variously shaped, up to 15 cm. Seeds pale yellow, discoid or reniform, 3-5 mm. Fl. May-Aug, fr. Jul-Nov.
Widely cultivated in China [native to Mexico and South America, widely cultivated and naturalized throughout the world]
The species includes forms with sweet or pungent fruits. The fruits are an important vegetable and flavoring, and the seed oil is edible. Fruits are used medicinally for inducing sweat. Plants are sometimes cultivated as ornamentals. During its long cultivation, many cultivars have been selected with very different fruit appearance.
The practice of referring woody plants of this species to Capsicum frutescens Linnaeus has little merit since herbaceous plants often become woody with age, and other characters supposed to distinguish the two species occur in various populations in both herbaceous and woody plants.
 





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