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苹果 Malus pumila

时间:2013-11-06 20:53来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 苹果 学名( Scientific Name ): Malus pumila Mill. 英文名( English Common Name ): paradise apple 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 奈、西洋苹果 异名( Synonym ): Malus domestica Borkh. Malus niedzwetzkyana Di
中文名(Chinese Name):苹果
学名(Scientific Name):Malus pumila Mill.
英文名(English Common Name):paradise apple
别名(Chinese Common Name):奈、西洋苹果
异名(Synonym):Malus domestica Borkh.  Malus niedzwetzkyana Dieck ex Koehne  Malus communis Poir.  Malus pumila var. domestica (Borkh.) C. K. Schneid.  Malus domestica subsp. pumila (Mill.) Likhonos  Malus dasyphylla Borkh.  Malus dasyphylla var. domestica Koidz.  Malus silvestris subsp. mitis (Wallr.) Mansf.  Pyrus malus L.  Pyrus malus var. pumila Henry  Malus sylvestris subsp. mitis Mansf.
科属(Family & Genus):蔷薇科(Rosaceae)苹果属
形态特征(Description):乔木,高可达15米,多具有圆形树冠和短主干;小枝短而粗,圆柱形,幼嫩时密被绒毛,老枝紫褐色,无毛;冬芽卵形,先端钝,密被短柔毛。叶片椭圆形、卵形至宽椭圆形,长4.5-10厘米,宽3-5.5厘米,先端急尖,基部宽楔形或圆形,边缘具有圆钝锯齿,幼嫩时两面具短柔毛,长成后上面无毛;叶柄粗壮,长约1.5-3厘米,被短柔毛;托叶草质,披针形,先端渐尖,全缘,密被短柔毛,早落。伞房花序,具花3-7朵,集生于小枝顶端,花梗长1-2.5厘米,密被绒毛;苞片膜质,线状披针形,先端渐尖,全缘,被绒毛;花直径3-4厘米;萼筒外面密被绒毛;萼片三角披针形或三角卵形,长6-8毫米,先端渐尖,全缘,内外两面均密被绒毛,萼片比萼筒长;花瓣倒卵形,长15-18毫米,基部具短爪,白色,含苞未放时带粉红色;雄蕊20,花丝长短不齐,约等于花瓣之半;花柱5,下半部密被灰白色绒毛,较雄蕊稍长。果实扁球形,直径在2厘米以上,先端常有隆起,萼洼下陷,萼片永存,果梗短粗。花期5月,果期7-10月。
分布(Distribution):辽宁、河北、山西、山东、陕西、甘肃、四川、云南、西藏常见栽培,适生于海拔50-2500米山坡梯田、平原矿野以及黄土丘陵等处。原产欧洲及亚洲中部。
用途(Use):本种是著名落叶果树,经济价值很高。全世界栽培品种总数在一千以上。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 9 Page 183     
Malus pumila Miller, Gard. Dict., ed. 8. Malus no. 3. 1768.
苹果 ping guo| Rosaceae  | Malus
Malus communis Poiret; M. dasyphylla Borkhausen; M. dasyphylla var. domestica Koidzumi; M. domestica Borkhausen; M. domestica subsp. pumila (Miller) Likhonos; M. pumila var. domestica C. K. Schneider; M. niedzwetzkyana Dieck ex Koehne; M. sylvestris Miller subsp. mitis Mansfeld; Pyrus malus Linnaeus; P. malus var. pumila Henry.
Trees to 15 m tall. Branchlets purplish brown when old, terete, robust, short, densely tomentose when young, glabrous when old; buds purplish brown, ovoid, densely puberulous. Stipules caducous, lanceolate, 3–5 mm, herbaceous, densely puberulous, margin entire, apex acuminate; petiole robust, 1.5–3 cm, puberulous; leaf blade elliptic, ovate, or broadly elliptic, 4.5–10 × 3–5.5 cm, both surfaces densely puberulous when young, adaxially glabrescent, base broadly cuneate or rounded, margin obtusely serrate, apex acute. Corymb at apices of branchlets, 4–6 cm in diam., 3–7-flowered; bracts caducous, linear-lanceolate, membranous, tomentose, margin entire, apex acuminate. Pedicel 1–2.5 cm, tomentose. Flowers 3–4 cm in diam. Hypanthium tomentose abaxially. Sepals triangular-lanceolate or triangular-ovate, 6–8 mm, longer than hypanthium, both surfaces tomentose, margin entire, apex acuminate. Petals white, obovate, 1.5–1.8 cm, base shortly clawed, apex rounded. Stamens 20, unequal, ca. 1/2 as long as petals. Ovary 5-loculed, with 2 ovules per locule; styles 5, slightly longer than stamens, gray tomentose basally. Pome red or yellow, depressed-subglobose, ca. 2 cm in diam., impressed at base; fruiting pedicel short and thickened; sepals persistent. Fl. May, fr. Jul–Oct. 2n = 24*, 34*, 51*, 68.
Commonly cultivated in N, NW, and SW China [Bhutan; Native to SW Asia and Europe].
 






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