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油菜花Brassica rapa var.oleifera

时间:2013-09-05 15:49来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):油菜花 学名( Scientific Name ): Brassica rapa var. oleifera DC. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 芸薹 异名( Synonym ): Brassica campestris Linn. Brassica chinensis var. oleif
中文名(Chinese Name):油菜花
学名(Scientific Name):Brassica rapa var. oleifera DC.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):芸薹
异名(Synonym):Brassica campestris Linn.  Brassica chinensis var. oleifera Makino et Nemoto  Brassica nipposinica L. H. Bailey  Brassica dubiosa L. H. Bailey  Brassica rapa subsp. campestris (L.) Clapham  Brassica campestris var. oleifera DC.  Brassica perviridis (L. H. Bailey) L. H. Bailey  Brassica campestris subsp. oleifera (DC.) Schübl. et Mart.  Brassica campestris var. chinoleifera Viehoever  Brassica asperifolia Lam.  Brassica campestris subsp. nipposinica (L. H. Bailey) G. Olsson  Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera (DC.) Metzg.  Brassica rapa var. chinoleifera (Viehoever) Kitam.  Brassica rapa var. perviridis L. H. Bailey  Brassica chinensis var. angustifolia V. G. Sun  Brassica chinensis var. utilis M. Tsen et S. H. Lee
科属Family & Genus):十字花科(Cruciferae)芸薹属
形态特征Description):二年生草本,高30-90厘米;茎粗壮,直立,分枝或不分枝,无毛或近无毛,稍带粉霜。基生叶大头羽裂,顶裂片圆形或卵形,边缘有不整齐弯缺牙齿,侧裂片1至数对,卵形;叶柄宽,长2-6厘米,基部抱茎;下部茎生叶羽状半裂,长6-10厘米,基部扩展且抱茎,两面有硬毛及缘毛;上部茎生叶长圆状倒卵形、长圆形或长圆状披针形,长2.5-8 (-15) 厘米,宽0.5-4 (-5) 厘米,基部心形,抱茎,两侧有垂耳,全缘或有波状细齿。总状花序在花期成伞房状,以后伸长;花鲜黄色,直径7-10毫米;萼片长圆形,长3-5毫米,直立开展,顶端圆形,边缘透明,稍有毛;花瓣倒卵形,长7-9毫米,顶端近微缺,基部有爪。长角果线形,长3-8厘米,宽2-4毫米,果瓣有中脉及网纹,萼直立,长9-24毫米;果梗长5-15毫米。种子球形,直径约1.5毫米。紫褐色。花期3-4月,果期5月。
分布(Distribution):产陕西、江苏、安徽、浙江、江西、湖北、湖南及四川。
用途(Use):为主要油料植物之一,种子含油量40%左右,油供食用;嫩茎叶和总花梗作蔬菜;种子药用,能行血散结消肿;叶可外敷痈肿。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 8 Page 19
Brassica rapa var. oleifera de Candolle, Syst. Nat. 2: 591. 1821.
芸苔 yun tai| Brassicaceae  | Brassica
Brassica asperifolia Lamarck; B. campestris Linnaeus; B. campestris var. chinoleifera Viehoever; B. campestris subsp. nipposinica (L. H. Bailey) G. Olsson; B. campestris (Linnaeus) subsp. oleifera (de Candolle) Schübler & Martius; B. campestris var. oleifera de Candolle; B. chinensis Linnaeus var. angustifolia V. G. Sun; B. chinensis var. utilis M. Tsen & S. H. Lee; B. dubiosa L. H. Bailey; B. nipposinica L. H. Bailey; B. perviridis (L. H. Bailey) L. H. Bailey; B. rapa subsp. campestris (Linnaeus) Clapham; B. rapa subsp. nipposinica (L. H. Bailey) Hanelt; B. rapa subsp. oleifera (de Candolle) Metzger; B. rapa var. campestris (Linnaeus) Petermann; B. rapa var. chinoleifera (Viehoever) Kitamura; B. rapa var. perviridis L. H. Bailey.
Plants annual or rarely biennial. Taproot not fleshy, cylindric. Basal leaves rarely up to 10, not rosulate or obscurely rosulate; petiole slender, neither fleshy nor winged; leaf blade subentire, sinuately lobed, pinnatifid, or incised with irregularly serrate lobes. Fl. Mar-May, fr. May-Jul. 2n = 20*.
Cultivated. Throughout China [widely cultivated elsewhere].
Widely cultivated in Asia as a source of seed oil, but also grown in China as a medicinal plant and vegetable for its purple shoots. Plants of this variety are weedy throughout much of the world and are better known as Brassica campestris.
Purplish forms of this subspecies with shallowly lobed or unlobed basal leaves are cultivated in China as a vegetable. They were originally described as Brassica campestris var. purpuraria L. H. Bailey and later as B. purpuraria (L. H. Bailey) L. H. Bailey. If a formal recognition were needed, then the name would be B. rapa var. purpuraria (L. H. Bailey) Kitamura (Mem. Coll. Sci. Kyoto Imp. Univ., Ser. B, Biol. 19: 78. 1950).
Another leafy form, originally described from Sichuan and later cultivated in Jiangsu and many other provinces, is Brassica juncea var. celerifolia M. Tsen & S. H. Lee (Hort. Sin. 2: 28. 1942). It was correctly excluded from B. juncea because it has 2n = 20, but was raised to the rank of species, as B. celerifolia (M. Tsen & S. H. Lee) Y. C. Lan & T. Y. Cheo (Acta Phytotax. Sin. 29: 74. 1991). It has deeply incised leaf blades.









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