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腰果Anacardium occidentale

时间:2018-06-29 13:45来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):腰果 学名( Scientific Name ): Anacardium occidentale Linn. 英文名( English Common Name ): cashew 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 鸡腰果 异名 ( Synonym ): Acajuba occidentalis (L.) Gaertn.;Anacardium micr








中文名(Chinese Name):腰果
学名(Scientific Name):Anacardium occidentale Linn.
英文名(English Common Name):cashew
别名(Chinese Common Name):鸡腰果
异名Synonym):Acajuba occidentalis (L.) Gaertn.;Anacardium microcarpum Ducke;Anacardium occidentale var. americanum DC.;Anacardium occidentale var. gardneri Engl.;Cassuvium pomiferum Lam.;Cassuvium reniforme Blanco;Cassuvium solitarium Stokes
科属Family & Genus):漆树科(Anacardiaceae)腰果属
形态特征Description):灌木或小乔木,高4-10米;小枝黄褐色,无毛或近无毛。叶革质,倒卵形,长8-14厘米,宽6-8.5厘米,先端圆形,平截或微凹,基部阔楔形,全缘,两面无毛,侧脉约12对,侧脉和网脉两面突起;叶柄长1-1.5厘米。圆锥花序宽大,多分枝,排成伞房状,长10-20厘米,多花密集,密被锈色微柔毛;苞片卵状披针形,长5-10毫米,背面被锈色微柔毛;花黄色,杂性,无花梗或具短梗;花萼外面密被锈色微柔毛,裂片卵状披针形,先端急尖,长约4毫米,宽约1.5毫米;花瓣线状披针形,长7-9毫米,宽约1.2毫米,外面被锈色微柔毛,里面疏被毛或近无毛,开花时外卷;雄蕊7-10,通常仅1个发育,长8-9毫米,在两性花中长5-6毫米,不育雄蕊较短(长3-4毫米),花丝基部多少合生,花药小,卵圆形;子房倒卵圆形,长约2毫米,无毛,花柱钻形,长4-5毫米。核果肾形,两侧压扁,长2-2.5厘米,宽约1.5厘米,果基部为肉质梨形或陀螺形的假果所托,假果长3-7厘米,最宽处4-5厘米,成熟时紫红色;种子肾形,长1.5-2厘米,宽约1厘米。
分布(Distribution):原产热带美洲,现全球热带广为栽培。我国云南、广西、广东、福建、台湾均有引种,适于低海拔的干热地区栽培。
用途(Use):假果可生食或制果汁、果酱、蜜饯、罐头和酿酒。种子炒食,味如花生,可甜制或咸制,亦可加工糕点或糖果,含油量较高,为上等食用油,多用于硬化巧克力糖的原料。果壳油是优良的防腐剂或防水剂,又可入药,治牛皮癣、铜钱癣及香港脚,还可提制栲胶。木材耐腐,可供造船。树皮用于杀虫、治白蚁和制不退色墨水。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 11 Page 335, 337      
Anacardium occidentale Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 383. 1753.
腰果 yao guo | Anacardiaceae  | Anacardium
Trees or shrubs, 4-10 m tall; branchlets glabrous to subglabrous. Petiole 1-1.5 cm; leaf blade obovate, 8-11 × 6-8.5 cm, leathery, glabrous on both sides, base broadly cuneate, margin entire, apex rounded, truncate to retuse, lateral veins ca. 12 pairs, reticulate venation pattern prominent on both sides. Inflorescence paniculate, 10-20 cm, glabrous to densely grayish sericeous; floral subtending bracts ovate-lanceolate, 5-10 mm, keeled, grayish sericeous abaxially, glabrous adaxially. Flower sessile to shortly pedicellate. Calyx grayish sericeous abaxially, ca. 4 × 1.5 mm. Petals 5, greenish yellow to red, linear-lanceolate, 7-9 × ca. 1.2 mm, grayish sericeous abaxially, minutely pubescent to subglabrous adaxially. Stamens 7-10, larger one 8-9 mm in male flowers, 5-6 mm in bisexual flowers, sterile stamens 3-4 mm. Ovary ca. 2 mm, glabrous; style 4-5 mm. Fleshy hypocarp 3-7 × 4-5 cm, purplish red at maturity; drupe reniform, 2-2.5 × ca. 1.5 cm. Fl. Mar-Apr, fr. Jul-Aug.
Cultivated. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Taiwan, Yunnan [native to tropical America].
The edible seeds are referred to as cashew nuts. They are surrounded by a leathery shell (mesocarp), which is rich in liquid. This substance is an important raw material for resin. The liquid contains skin-irritant toxic compounds, which are removed by heating. The fleshy hypocarp, or cashew apple, is processed into jam and dried fruit.
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