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犁头尖Typhonium blumei

时间:2013-11-11 15:36来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 犁头尖 学名( Scientific Name ): Typhonium blumei Nicolson et Sivadasan 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 金半夏、土半夏 异名( Synonym ): Typhonium divaricatum (Linn.) Decne.
中文名(Chinese Name):犁头尖
学名(Scientific Name):Typhonium blumei Nicolson et Sivadasan
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):金半夏、土半夏
异名(Synonym):Typhonium divaricatum (Linn.) Decne.
科属(Family & Genus):天南星科Araceae犁头尖属Typhonium
形态特征(Description):块茎近球形、头状或椭圆形,直径1-2厘米,褐色,具环节,节间有黄色根迹,颈部生长1-4厘米的黄白色纤维状须根,散生疣凸状芽眼。幼株叶1-2,叶片深心形、卵状心形至戟形,长3-5厘米,宽2-4厘米,多年生植株有叶4-8枚,叶柄长20-24厘米,基部4厘米鞘状、莺尾式排列,淡绿色,上部圆柱形,绿色;叶片绿色,背淡,戟状三角形,前裂片卵形,长7-10厘米,宽7-9厘米;后裂片长卵形,外展,长6厘米,基部弯缺呈“开”形;中肋2面稍隆起,侧脉3-5对,最下1对基出,伸展为侧裂片的主脉,集合脉2圈。花序柄单1,从叶腋抽出,长9-11厘米,淡绿色,圆柱形,粗2毫米,直立。佛焰苞:管部绿色,卵形,长1.6-3厘米,粗0.8-1.5厘米;檐部绿紫色,卷成长角状,长12-18厘米,下部粗6毫米,盛花时展开,后仰,卵状长披针形,宽4-5厘米,中部以上骤狭成带状下垂,先端旋曲,内面深紫色,外面绿紫色。肉穗花序无柄,雌花序圆锥形,长1.5-3毫米,粗3-4毫米;中性花序长1.7-4厘米,下部7-8毫米长具花,连花粗4毫米,无花部分粗约1毫米,淡绿色;雄花序长4-9毫米,粗约4毫米,橙黄色;附属器深紫色,具强烈的粪臭,长10-13厘米,基部斜截形,明显具细柄,粗4毫米,向上渐狭成鼠尾状,近直立,下部1/3具疣皱,向上平滑。雄花近无柄,雄蕊2,药室2,长圆状倒卵形,雌花:子房卵形,黄色,柱头无柄,盘状具乳突,红色。中性花同型,线形,长约4毫米,上升或下弯,两头黄色,腰部红色。花期5-7月。
分布(Distribution):产浙江、江西、福建、湖南、广东、广西、四川、云南,海拔1200米以下,生于地边、田头、草坡、石隙中。印度、缅甸、越南、泰国至印度尼西亚(爪哇、苏拉威西岛)、帝汶岛,北至日本琉球群岛、九洲南部均有分布。
用途(Use):块茎入药。有毒。能解毒消肿、散结、止血,主治毒蛇咬伤,痈疖肿毒、血管瘤、淋巴结 结核、跌打损伤、外伤出血。一般外用,不作内服。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 23 Page 34, 35
Typhonium blumei Nicolson & Sivadasan, Blumea. 27: 494. 1981.
犁头尖 li tou jian | Araceae  | Typhonium
Underground part a broad and flattened rhizome, to 5 × 2.5 cm, to 1.8 cm high, producing numerous small, fusiform offsets. Petiole green, 20-40 cm; leaf blade pale green abaxially, green adaxially, entire, cordate-hastate, ovate or deltoid in outline, 7-10 × 7-9 cm, terminal lobe ovate, basal lobes ovate to deltoid. Inflorescence appearing alongside leaves; peduncle pale green, 9-11 cm. Spathe convolute at base, green, ellipsoid to ovoid, 1.6-4 cm × 8-15 mm, distinctly constricted at apex; limb spreading, inside greenish purple to dark purple, ovate, 12-18 × 4-5 cm, long cuspidate. Spadix erect, subequaling spathe; female zone conic, 1.5-3 mm, 3-4 mm in diam. at base; ovary cream-colored; stigma sessile, reddish or pale pinkish; sterile zone 1.7-4 cm, proximal 7-8 mm covered with densely congested staminodes, rest naked, terete; staminodes ascending or variously curved, yellow or basal part reddish, narrowly fusiform, ca. 4 mm; male zone 4-9 mm; stamens yellow, subsessile; anthers orange; appendix narrowly conic, 10-13 cm, proximally corrugate, distally smooth, tapering to sharply acute apex, base truncate or obliquely truncate, usually with a stipe 5-7 mm. Fl. May-Jul. 2n = 52.
Croplands, grasslands, between rocks; below 1200 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Japan, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam; introduced in Africa, Nepal, Neotropics, Philippines, and Pacific islands].
In FRPS (13(2): 111. 1979), the name Typhonium divaricatum (Linnaeus) Decaisne was misapplied to this species.
 


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