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北缬草Valeriana officinalis

时间:2013-11-10 10:17来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 北缬草 学名( Scientific Name ): Valeriana officinalis L. 英文名( English Common Name ): garden valerian 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 缬草 异名( Synonym ): Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia Miq. Val
中文名(Chinese Name):北缬草
学名(Scientific Name):Valeriana officinalis L.
英文名(English Common Name):garden valerian
别名(Chinese Common Name):缬草
异名(Synonym):Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia Miq.  Valeriana stolonifera Czern.  Valeriana fauriei Briq.  Valeriana leiocarpa Kitag.  Valeriana dubia Bunge  Valeriana coreana Briq.  Valeriana alternifolia Bunge  Valeriana tianschanica Kreyer ex Hand.-Mazz.  Valeriana pseudofficinalis C. Y. Cheng et H. B. Chen  Valeriana nipponica Nakai ex Kitag.  Valeriana officinalis var. alternifolia Ledeb.  Valeriana officinalis var. angustifolia Miq.  Valeriana stubendorfii f. angustifolia Kom.  Valeriana stubendorfii Kreyer ex Kom.  Valeriana alternifolia var. stolonifera Baranov et Skvortsov  Valeriana subbipinnatifolia A. I. Baranov  Valeriana fauriei var. leiocarpa (Kitag.) Kitag.  Valeriana alternifolia var. angustifolia (Komarov) S. H. Li  Valeriana alternifolia f. verticillata (Komarov) S. X. Li  Valeriana baltica Pleijel  Valeriana exaltata J.C. Mikan  Valeriana officinalis subsp. baltica á. L?ve & D. L?ve  Valeriana officinalis subsp. exaltata Soó
科属Family & Genus):败酱科(Valerianaceae)缬草属
形态特征Description):多年生高大草本,高可达100-150厘米;根状茎粗短呈头状,须根簇生;茎中空,有纵棱,被粗毛,尤以节部为多,老时毛少。匍枝叶、基出叶和基部叶在花期常凋萎。茎生叶卵形至宽卵形,羽状深裂,裂片7-11;中央裂片与两侧裂片近同形同大小,但有时与第1对侧裂片合生成3裂状,裂片披针形或条形,顶端渐窄,基部下延,全缘或有疏锯齿,两面及柄轴多少被毛。花序顶生,成伞房状三出聚伞圆锥花序;小苞片中央纸质,两侧膜质,长椭圆状长圆形、倒披针形或线状披针形,先端芒状突尖,边缘多少有粗缘毛。花冠淡紫红色或白色,长4-5 (-6) 毫米,花冠裂片椭圆形,雌雄蕊约与花冠等长。瘦果长卵形,长约4-5毫米,基部近平截,光秃或两面被毛。花期5-7月,果期6-10月。
分布(Distribution):产我国东北至西南的广大地区,生海拔2500米以下山坡草地、林下、沟边。欧洲和亚洲西部也广为分布。
用途(Use):各地药圃常有栽培。根茎及根供药用,可驱风、镇痉,治跌打损伤等。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 19 Page 667, 670 
Valeriana officinalis Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 31. 1753.
缬草 xie cao| Valerianaceae  | Valeriana
Valeriana alternifolia Bunge; V. alternifolia f. angustifolia (Komarov) Kitagawa; V. alternifolia var. angustifolia (Komarov) S. H. Li; V. alternifolia f. verticillata (Komarov) S. X. Li; V. chinensis Kreyer ex Komarov; V. coreana Briquet; V. coreana subsp. leiocarpa (Kitagawa) Voroschilov; V. dubia Bunge; V. fauriei Briquet; V. fauriei var. leiocarpa (Kitagawa) Kitagawa; V. leiocarpa Kitagawa; V. nipponica Nakai ex Kitagawa; V. officinalis var. alternifolia (Bunge) Ledebour; V. officinalis var. latifolia Briquet; V. pseudofficinalis C. Y. Cheng & H. B. Chen; V. stubendorfii Kreyer ex Komarov; V. stubendorfii f. angustifolia Komarov; V. stubendorfii f. verticillata Komarov; V. subbipinnatifolia A. I. Baranov; V. tianschanica Kreyer ex Handel-Mazzetti.
Plants up to 150 cm tall, infrequently stoloniferous. Rhizomes reduced; roots fascicled, clavate, 1.5-2.5 mm in diam. Stems hirsute or hispidulous, particularly at nodes, rarely glabrous. Basal and lowermost cauline leaves usually wilted at anthesis; cauline leaves petiolate to sessile; petiole 0-8 cm; blade ovate to broadly ovate, 5-15 × 3-8 cm, pinnatisect; segments 7-15, lanceolate or linear, glabrous or ± hispidulous, base decurrent, margin entire or coarsely serrate; terminal and lateral segments similar in shape and size. Inflorescence corymbiform, large and compact even in fruit, or with 2 distinct, secondary lateral inflorescences; bracts leaflike below, small and linear-lanceolate otherwise; bracteoles elliptic-oblong, oblanceolate, or linear-lanceolate, margin scarious-ciliate, apex awned. Corolla purplish red, pink, or white, funnelform, 4-6 mm; lobes elliptic. Stamens and style strongly exserted. Achenes narrowly ovoid, 4-5 mm, both sides glabrous or pubescent. Fl. May-Jul, fr. Jun-Oct. 2n = 14, 28, 42, 56.
Grassy slopes, forests, by streams; below 2500 m, but up to 4000 m in Qinghai, Sichuan, and Xizang. Anhui, Chongqing, Gansu, Guizhou (Fanjing Shan, Huangping, Kaili), Hebei, Henan, W Hubei, W Hunan (Sangzhi, Xinning), Jiangxi (Lu Shan), N and SE Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong (Changqing, Kunyu Shan, Taishan), Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang (Jomda, Qamdo, Riwoqê), Zhejiang (Tianmu Shan) [Japan, Russia; Europe].
Valeriana officinalis is a very variable species for which several infraspecific taxa have been described.
 






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