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小叶冷水花Pilea microphylla

时间:2013-11-10 10:11来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 小叶冷水花 学名( Scientific Name ): Pilea microphylla (L.) Liebm. 英文名( English Common Name ): rockweed 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 透明草 异名( Synonym ): Parietaria microphylla L. Adicea herniari
中文名(Chinese Name):小叶冷水花
学名(Scientific Name):Pilea microphylla (L.) Liebm.
英文名(English Common Name):rockweed
别名(Chinese Common Name):透明草
异名(Synonym):Parietaria microphylla L.  Adicea herniarioides (Sw.) Small  Adicea microphylla var. herniariodes (Sw.) Kuntze  Adicea microphylla var. trianthemoides (Sw.) Kuntze  Adicea microphylla Kuntze  Chamaecnide microphylla Nees ex Miq.  Dubrueilia microphylla (L.) Gaudich.  Pilea globosa Wedd.  Pilea microphylla var. longifolia Wedd.  Pilea muscosa var. microphylla (L.) Wedd.  Pilea muscosa Lindl.  Pilea portula Liebm.  Pilea subcrenata Weddell hom. illeg.  Pilea thymifolia Blume  Pilea trianthemoides var. microphylla (L.) Wedd.  Urtica herniarifolia Willd.  Urtica microphylla (L.) Sw.  Urtica portulacoides Spreng.  Urtica serpyllacea Kunth  Urtica thymifolia Kunth
科属(Family & Genus):荨麻科(Urticaceae)冷水花属
形态特征(Description):纤细小草本,无毛,铺散或直立。茎肉质,多分枝,高3-17厘米,粗1-1.5毫米,干时常变蓝绿色,密布条形钟乳体。叶很小,同对的不等大,倒卵形至匙形,长3-7毫米,宽1.5-3毫米,先端钝,基部楔形或渐狭,边缘全缘,稍反曲,上面绿色,下面浅绿色,干时呈细蜂巢状,钟乳体条形,上面明显,长0.3-0.4毫米,横向排列,整齐,叶脉羽状,中脉稍明显,在近先端消失,侧脉数对,不明显;叶柄纤细,长1-4毫米;托叶不明显,三角形,长约0.5毫米。雌雄同株,有时同序,聚伞花序密集成近头状,具梗,稀近无梗,长1.5-6毫米。雄花具梗,在芽时长约0.7毫米;花被片4,卵形,外面近先端有短角状突起;雄蕊4;退化雌蕊不明显。雌花更小;花被片3,稍不等长,果时中间的一枚长圆形,稍增厚,与果近等长,侧生二枚卵形,先端锐尖,薄膜质,较长的一枚短约1/4;退化雄蕊不明显。瘦果卵形,长约0.4毫米,熟时变褐色,光滑。花期夏秋季,果期秋季。
分布(Distribution):原产南美洲热带,后引入亚洲、非洲热带地区,在我国南部一些省区已归化。常生长于路边石缝和墙上阴湿处。
用途(Use):本种植物体小嫩绿秀丽,花开时节轻震动植物,弹散出的花粉尤如一团烟火,景观十分美丽,故在美洲享有“礼花草”的美名,可作栽培观赏用。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 5 Page 119
Pilea microphylla (Linnaeus) Liebmann, Kongel. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Skr., Naturvidensk. Math. Afd., ser. 5. 5(2): 302. 1851.
小叶冷水花 xiao ye leng shui hua    | Urticaceae  | Pilea
Parietaria microphylla Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 2: 1308. 1759.
Herbs weak, glabrous, monoecious. Stems erect or ascending, blue-green when dry, simple or branched, 3-17 cm tall, 1-1.5 mm in diam., succulent, cystoliths dense. Stipules persistent, triangular, ca. 0.5 mm, membranous; petiole slender, unequal in length, 1-4 mm; leaf blade abaxially pale green, adaxially green, obovate or spatulate, unequal in size, 2-7 × 1.5-3 mm, succulent, papery when dry, midvein indistinct distally, lateral veins several, indistinct, abaxial surface honeycombed, cystoliths linear, adaxial, regularly transverse, base cuneate or attenuate, margin entire, somewhat recurved, apex obtuse. Inflorescences often androgynous, compactly cymose-capitate; peduncle 1.5-6 mm, sometimes sessile; glomerules few flowered. Male flowers pedicellate, ca. 0.7 mm; perianth lobes ovate, subapically corniculate; rudimentary ovary minute, conic. Female perianth lobes subequal, oblong, longer lobe subequal to achene. Achene ovoid, ca. 0.4 mm, compressed, smooth, enclosed by persistent perianth. Fl. Jun-Aug, fr. Sep-Oct.
Commonly naturalized in S China and in greenhouses in N China [native to tropical South America].
 




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