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阔叶丰花草Spermacoce alata

时间:2013-11-08 13:08来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):阔叶丰花草 学名( Scientific Name ): Spermacoce alata Aubl. [excluded] 英文名( English Common Name ): winged false buttonweed 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 异名( Synonym ): Borreria latifolia (Aubl.) K.
中文名(Chinese Name):阔叶丰花草
学名(Scientific Name):Spermacoce alata Aubl. [excluded]
英文名(English Common Name):winged false buttonweed
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Borreria latifolia (Aubl.) K. Schum.  Borreria alata (AuBlume) DC.  Spermacoce latifolia AuBlume
科属(Family & Genus):茜草科(Rubiaceae)丰花草属
形态特征(Description):披散、粗壮草本,被毛;茎和枝均为明显的四棱柱形,棱上具狭翅。叶椭圆形或卵状长圆形,长度变化大,长2-7.5厘米,宽1-4厘米,顶端锐尖或钝,基部阔楔形而下延,边缘波浪形,鲜时黄绿色,叶面平滑;侧脉每边5-6条,略明显;叶柄长4-10毫米,扁平;托叶膜质,被粗毛,顶部有数条长于鞘的刺毛。花数朵丛生于托叶鞘内,无梗;小苞片略长于花萼;萼管圆筒形,长约1毫米,被粗毛,萼檐4裂,裂片长2毫米;花冠漏斗形,浅紫色,罕有白色,长3-6毫米,里面被疏散柔毛,基部具1毛环,顶部4裂,裂片外面被毛或无毛;花柱长5-7毫米,柱头2,裂片线形。蒴果椭圆形,长约3毫米,直径约2毫米,被毛,成熟时从顶部纵裂至基部,隔膜不脱落或1个分果爿的隔膜脱落;种子近椭圆形,两端钝,长约2毫米,直径约1毫米,干后浅褐色或黑褐色,无光泽,有小颗粒。花果期5-7月。
分布(Distribution):原产南美洲,本种生长快,现已逸为野生,多见于废墟和荒地上。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 19 Page 326
Spermacoce alata Aublet, Hist. Pl. Guiane. 1: 55. 1775.
阔叶丰花草 kuo ye feng hua cao| Rubiaceae  | Spermacoce
Borreria alata (Aublet) Candolle; B. latifolia (Aublet) K. Schumann; Spermacoce latifolia Aublet
Herbs, perennial, erect to weak or clambering, sometimes fleshy, usually drying yellowish green, to 1 m; stems 4-angled, hispidulous or pilosulous and sometimes also hirsute, angles rounded to acute or very narrowly winged, wings entire. Leaves sessile to shortly petiolate; petiole to 4 mm, pilosulous or hirtellous; blade drying papery, elliptic or ovate-oblong, 12-75 × 6-40 mm, both surfaces sparsely to densely hispidulous to pilosulous, base cuneate to obtuse then long decurrent, apex acute or obtuse; secondary veins 5 or 6 pairs; stipules hirtellous to hispidulous, sheath 1-1.5 mm, with 5-9 bristles or narrowly triangular lobes 1-7 mm, ciliate. Inflorescences axillary and infrequently apparently also terminal, 6-15 mm in diam., few to several flowered, notably hispidulous to pilosulous; bracts filiform, 0.5-4 mm. Calyx moderately to densely hirtellous or pilosulous; hypanthium portion ellipsoid to obovoid, ca. 0.5 mm; lobes 4, lanceolate to elliptic or triangular, 1-2 mm. Corolla white tinged with blue to pale purple, funnelform, outside pilosulous to hirtellous; tube 2-3 mm, pubescent in throat; lobes triangular, 1-1.5 mm. Capsules ellipsoid to subglobose, 3-3.5 × 2-3 mm, densely hirtellous and often also hirsute on upper portion, densely puberulent to strigillose on sides, stiffly papery to cartilaginous, septicidal from apex with valves usually remaining connected at base, then both valves loculicidal through septum; seeds pale brown or dark brown, ellipsoid, ca. 2 × 1 mm, obtuse at both ends, shiny or dull, surface with numerous tiny pits not organized into rows. Fl. and fr. May-Nov.
Naturalized in disturbed ground and wastelands; below 100-800 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Hainan, Taiwan, Zhejiang [apparently native to the Neotropics but exact origin unknown; Antilles, Central America, North America (Mexico, Florida), widespread in tropical South America; naturalized in Africa, S and SE Asia, Australia, Madagascar, and perhaps North America].
The seeds of this species were illustrated by Chaw and Sivarajan (Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin., n.s., 30: 20, f. 25-27. 1989). This species is considered an invasive weed in the area of Guangzhou in Guangdong Province. W. C. Ko (in FRPS 71(2): 207. 1999) described the fruit as septicidal to base at maturity, septum not caducous, or septum of one valve caducous, but there seems to be a confusion here and this description is not accurate for this species.
The names Spermacoce alata and S. latifolia (or Borreria alata and B. latifolia) have been treated as distinct species by many authors but synonymized by others, variously under each of these names. There now appears to be only one species here, which takes the name S. alata. Aublet’s names were published simultaneously; although the names B. latifolia and S. latifolia have been more often used, these species were apparently first synonymized by Hara and Gould (Enum. Fl. Pl. Nepal, 199-209. 1979) under the name B. alata.
 


 
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