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药用大黄Rheum officinale

时间:2013-10-30 14:19来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
蓼科,Polygonaceae,大黄属,Rheum
中文名(Chinese Name):药用大黄
学名(Scientific Name):Rheum officinale Baill.
英文名(English Common Name):Chinese rhubarb
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):
科属(Family & Genus):蓼科(Polygonaceae)大黄属
形态特征(Description):高大草本,高1.5-2米,根及根状茎粗壮,内部黄色。茎粗壮,基部直径2-4厘米,中空,具细沟棱,被白色短毛,上部及节部较密。基生叶大型,叶片近圆形,稀极宽卵圆形,直径30-50厘米,或长稍大于宽,顶端近急尖形,基部近心形,掌状浅裂,裂片大齿状三角形,基出脉5-7条,叶上面光滑无毛,偶在脉上有疏短毛,下面具淡棕色短毛;叶柄粗圆柱状,与叶片等长或稍短,具楞棱线,被短毛;茎生叶向上逐渐变小, 上部叶腋具花序分枝;托叶鞘宽大,长可达15厘米,初时抱茎,后开裂,内面光滑无毛,外面密被短毛。大型圆锥花序,分枝开展,花4-10朵成簇互生,绿色到黄白色;花梗细长,长3-3.5毫米,关节在中下部;花被片6, 内外轮近等大,椭圆形或稍窄椭圆形,长2-2.5毫米,宽1.2-1.5毫米,边缘稍不整齐;雄蕊9, 不外露;花盘薄,瓣状;子房卵形或卵圆形,花柱反曲,柱头圆头状。果实长圆状椭圆形,长8-10毫米,宽7-9毫米,顶端圆,中央微下凹,基部浅心形,翅宽约3毫米,纵脉靠近翅的边缘。种子宽卵形。花期5-6月,果期8-9月。
分布(Distribution):产陕西、四川、湖北、贵州、云南、河南、湖北,生于海拔1200-4000米山沟或林下。
用途(Use):本种粗大的根状茎及根供药用。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 5 Page 345
Rheum officinale Baillon, Adansonia. 10: 246. 1871.
药用大黄 yao yong da huang| Polygonaceae  | Rheum
Herbs large, 1.5-2 m tall. Rhizomes and roots stout. Stem stout, hollow, finely sulcate, with white hairs, especially above and at nodes. Petiole of basal leaf terete, ca. as long as blade or slightly shorter, pubescent; leaf blade orbicular, rarely broadly ovate, large, 30-50 cm in diam., or longer than wide, abaxially pubescent, adaxially glabrous, rarely pubescent along veins, basal veins 5-7, base subcordate; palmatilobate, apex subacute. Stem leaves smaller upward; ocrea large, to 15 cm, broad, outside with dense hairs. Panicles large; branches spreading. Pedicel 3-3.5 mm, slender, jointed below middle. Flowers 4- or 5-fascicled. Tepals 6, green to yellow-white, elliptic or narrowly elliptic, 2-2.5 × 1.2-1.5 mm. Stamens shorter than perianth. Style deflexed; stigma inflated. Fruit oblong-ellipsoid, 8-10 × 7-9 mm; wings ca. 3 mm wide, with longitudinal veins near margin. Seeds broadly ovoid. Fl. May-Jun, fr. Aug-Sep.
* Hills, forests; 1200-4000 m. ?Fujian, Guizhou, SW Henan, W Hubei, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan.
The roots and rhizomes used medicinally.


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