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马齿苋Portulaca oleracea

时间:2013-10-30 17:00来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):马齿苋 学名( Scientific Name ): Portulaca oleracea L. 英文名( English Common Name ): little hogweed 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 马苋菜、蚂蚱菜 异名( Synonym ): Portulaca neglecta Mackenzie Bush Portul
中文名(Chinese Name):马齿苋
学名(Scientific Name):Portulaca oleracea L.
英文名(English Common Name):little hogweed
别名(Chinese Common Name):马苋菜、蚂蚱菜
异名(Synonym):Portulaca neglecta Mackenzie & Bush  Portulaca retusa Engelm.  Portulaca consanguinea Schltdl.  Portulaca fosbergii var. major Poelln.  Portulaca fosbergii Poelln.  Portulaca oleracea var. micrantha Eggers  Portulaca oleracea var. opposita Poelln.  Portulaca oleracea var. parvifolia (Haw.) Griseb.  Portulaca oleracea var. sativa DC.  Portulaca olitoria Pall.  Portulaca parvifolia Haw.  Portulaca hortensis Rupr.  Portulaca intermedia Link ex Schltdl.  Portulaca latifolia Hornem.  Portulaca marginata Kunth  Portulaca officinarum Crantz  Portulaca oleracea f. alba Alef.  Portulaca oleracea f. aurantia Alef.  Portulaca oleracea f. aurea Alef.  Portulaca oleracea f. caryophyllina Alef.  Portulaca oleracea f. gillesii Alef.  Portulaca oleracea f. haageana Alef.  Portulaca oleracea f. parvifolia (Haw.) Alef.  Portulaca oleracea f. rosea Alef.  Portulaca oleracea f. sativa (DC.) Alef.  Portulaca oleracea f. striata Alef.  Portulaca oleracea f. sulfurea Alef.  Portulaca oleracea f. violacea Alef.  Portulaca oleracea subsp. sativa (Haw.) ?elak.  Portulaca oleracea subsp. sylvestris (Garsault) Thell.  Portulaca oleracea var. granulatostellulata Poelln.  Portulaca pilosa var. marginata (Kunth) Kuntze  Portulaca sativa Haw.  Portulaca suffruticosa Thwaites
科属Family & Genus):马齿苋科(Portulacaceae)马齿苋属
形态特征Description):一年生草本,全株无毛。茎平卧或斜倚,伏地铺散,多分枝,圆柱形,长10-15厘米淡绿色或带暗红色。叶互生,有时近对生,叶片扁平,肥厚,倒卵形,似马齿状,长1-3厘米,宽0.6-1.5厘米,顶端圆钝或平截,有时微凹,基部楔形,全缘,上面暗绿色,下面淡绿色或带暗红色,中脉微隆起;叶柄粗短。花无梗,直径4-5毫米,常3-5朵簇生枝端,午时盛开;苞片2-6,叶状,膜质,近轮生;萼片2,对生,绿色,盔形,左右压扁,长约4毫米,顶端急尖,背部具龙骨状凸起,基部合生;花瓣5,稀4,黄色,倒卵形,长3-5毫米,顶端微凹,基部合生;雄蕊通常8,或更多,长约12毫米,花药黄色;子房无毛,花柱比雄蕊稍长,柱头4-6裂,线形。蒴果卵球形,长约5毫米,盖裂;种子细小,多数,偏斜球形,黑褐色,有光泽,直径不及1毫米,具小疣状凸起。花期5-8月,果期6-9月。
分布(Distribution):我国南北各地均产,广布全世界温带和热带地区。
用途(Use):全草供药用,有清热利湿、解毒消肿、消炎、止渴、利尿作用;种子明目;还可作兽药和农药;嫩茎叶可作蔬菜,味酸,也是很好的饲料。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 5 Page 443
Portulaca oleracea Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 445. 1753.
马齿苋 ma chi xian | Portulacaceae  | Portulaca
Herbs annual. Stems sometimes flushed red or purple, not articulated, prostrate or decumbent, less often ± erect, diffuse, much branched; leaf axils with a few inconspicuous stiff bristles. Leaves alternate or occasionally subopposite; petiole short; leaf blade flat, obovate, 10-30 × 5-15 mm, base cuneate, apex obtuse, rounded, truncate, or retuse. Flowers in clusters of 3-5, 0.4-0.5 cm in diam., surrounded by involucre of 2-6 bracts. Sepals green, helmeted, ca. 4 mm, apex acute, keeled. Petals 5, yellow, obovate, 3-5 mm, slightly connate at base, apex retuse. Stamens 7-12, ca. 12 mm; anthers yellow. Ovary glabrous. Stigma 4-6-lobed. Capsule ovoid, ca. 5 mm. Seeds glossy black when mature, never iridescent, obliquely globose-reniform, 0.6-1.2 mm; testa cells stellate, usually with central peglike tubercle, sometimes without and then surface ± granular. Fl. May-Aug, fr. Jun-Sep.
Cultivation, disturbed urban sites. Throughout China [tropical and temperate regions worldwide].
Danin et al. (Israel J. Bot. 27: 177–211. 1978) recognized a series of eight subspecies, but they are rather poorly correlated with geography and their status needs re-evaluation. The Chinese material seems to belong to the most common and weedy form placed in subsp. oleracea. There has been some selection of more robust forms for use as a vegetable; these are sometimes placed in subsp. sativa (Haworth) Celakovský.
The plants, which are common weeds of cultivation, are eaten as a vegetable and used for medicinal purposes.
 




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