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单穗升麻Cimicifuga simplex

时间:2013-10-30 21:31来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):单穗升麻 学名( Scientific Name ): Cimicifuga simplex Wormsk. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 野菜升麻 异名( Synonym ): Actaea cimicifuga var. simplex DC. Cimicifuga ussurien
中文名(Chinese Name):单穗升麻
学名(Scientific Name):Cimicifuga simplex Wormsk.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):野菜升麻
异名(Synonym):Actaea cimicifuga var. simplex DC.  Cimicifuga ussuriensis Oett.  Cimicifuga foetida var. intermedia Regel  Thalictrodes simplex (DC.) Kuntze  Actaea simplex (DC.) Wormsk. ex Fisch. et C. A. Mey.
科属Family & Genus):毛茛科(Ranunculaceae)升麻属
形态特征(Description):多年生低矮草本,全体无毛,具多数肉质须根。茎单一或数条,有时多达10条,直立或有时渐升,高3.5-18(-24)厘米,粗1-2毫米,通常只在顶端生1朵花,无叶或有时在中部或上部生1个叶,在叶腋不生花或有时生出1朵花,稀生2个叶。基生叶3-10,有长柄;叶片心状卵形或三角状卵形,有时肾形,长1-3(-3.7)厘米,宽1.2-2.8(-4)厘米,顶端圆形,基部深心形,边缘全缘或带波形,有时疏生小牙齿,叶柄长2.5-10(-15)厘米,基部具膜质长鞘。茎生叶如存在时极小,具短柄或有时无柄,叶片长在1.2厘米以下。花单独生于茎顶部,或2朵形成简单的单歧聚伞花序;萼片5(-7),黄色,倒卵形,椭圆形或卵形,长0.9-1.5(-1.9)厘米,宽0.7-1.4厘米,顶端圆形;雄蕊长3.5-7(-10)毫米,花药长圆形,花丝狭线形;心皮(5-)6-8(-11),与雄蕊近等长,具短柄和短花柱。蓇葖长1-1.6厘米,宽2.5-3毫米,具明显的横脉,心皮柄长1.8-3毫米,喙长约1毫米;种子黑色,肾状椭圆球形,稍扁,长1.2-1.5毫米,光滑,有少数纵肋。6-9月开花,7月开始结果。
分布(Distribution):分布于四川、甘肃、陕西、河北、内蒙古、东北,生海拔300-2300米间的山地草坪、潮湿的灌丛、草丛或草甸的草墩中。俄罗斯、蒙古、日本也有。
用途(Use):在四川西北部民间用全草治筋骨疼痛等症,用花治化脓创伤等症。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 6 Page 144     
Cimicifuga simplex (de Candolle) Wormskjöld ex Turczaninow, Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou. 15(1): 87. 1842.
单穗升麻 dan sui sheng ma| Ranunculaceae  | Cimicifuga
Actaea cimicifuga Linnaeus var.simplex de Candolle, Prodr. 1: 64. 1824; A. simplex (de Candolle) Wormskjöld ex Fischer & C. A. Meyer; Cimicifuga foetida Linnaeus var. intermedia Regel; C. foetida var. racemosa Regel; C. foetida var.simplex (de Candolle) Regel; C. ussuriensis Oettingen; Thalictrodes simplex (de Candolle) Kuntze.
Rhizome robust, blackish. Stem simple, 40--150 cm tall, glabrous, sometimes white pubescent apically. Proximal cauline leaves 2 or 3 × ternately pinnate, long petiolate; petiole to 30 cm; leaf blade ovate-triangular, to 30 cm; terminal leaflet broadly lanceolate to rhombic, 3--8.5 × 1.5--5.5 cm, usually 3-lobed, margin serrate; lateral leaflets usually sessile, narrowly obliquely ovate, smaller than terminal one, abaxially sparsely white villous at veins, adaxially glabrous. Distal cauline leaves smaller, 1 or 2 × ternately pinnate. Inflorescence racemose, to 35 cm, unbranched or sometimes several branched at base; rachis and pedicels densely white or gray pubescent; bracts subulate, shorter than pedicels. Pedicel (3--)5--10(--15) mm. Sepals broadly elliptic, ca. 4 mm. Petals elliptic to broadly elliptic, membranous at apex, 2-lobed. Filaments narrowly linear, 5--8 mm, glabrous; anthers ellipsoid, ca. 1 mm. Carpels 2--8, densely gray or white pubescent, stalked. Follicles 7--9(--13) × 4--5 mm, appressed pubescent or glabrous, stalk elongate after anthesis. Seeds 4--8, ellipsoid, ca. 3.5 mm, with scaly wings all around. Fl. Aug--Sep, fr. Sep--Oct. 2n = 16*.
Forest margins, scrub, grassy slopes, open lands; 300--3200 m. Gansu, Guangdong, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Zhejiang [Japan, Korea, E Mongolia, Russia (Far East, E Siberia)].
 




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