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蛇果黄堇 Corydalis ophiocarpa

时间:2013-12-05 12:42作者:徐晔春 点击: 次 标签: 罂粟科 Papaveraceae 紫堇属 Corydalis
  中文名(Chinese Name):蛇果黄堇
学名(Scientific Name):Corydalis ophiocarpa Hook.f. & Thoms.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):弯果黄堇
异名(Synonym)::Corydalis makinoana Matsum.  Corydalis streptocarpa Maxim.  Capnoides ophiocarpa Kuntze  
科属(Family & Genus):罂粟科(Papaveraceae)紫堇属
形态特征(Description):丛生灰绿色草本,高约30-120厘米,具主根。茎常多条,具叶,分枝,枝条花葶状,对叶生。基生叶多数,长10-50厘米;叶柄约与叶片等长,边缘具膜质翅,延伸叶片基部;叶片长圆形,二回至一回羽状全裂,一回羽片约4-5对,具短柄,二回羽片约2-3对,无柄,倒卵圆形至长圆形,3-5裂,裂片约长3-10毫米,宽1-5毫米,具短尖。茎生叶与基生叶同形,下部的具长柄,上部的具短柄,近一回羽状全裂;叶柄边缘延伸至叶片基部的翅较基生叶更明显。总状花序长10-30厘米,多花,具短花序轴。苞片线状披针形,长约5毫米。花梗长5-7毫米。花淡黄色至苍白色,平展。外花瓣顶端着色较深,渐尖。上花瓣长9-12毫米;距短囊状,约占花瓣全长的1/3至1/4,多少上升;蜜腺体约贯穿距长的1/2。下花瓣舟状,多少向前伸出。内花瓣顶端暗紫红色至暗绿色,具伸出顶端的鸡冠状突起,爪短于瓣片。雄蕊束披针形,上部缢缩成丝状。子房线形,稍长于花柱;柱头宽浅,具4乳突,顶生2枚呈广角状叉分,侧生2枚呈两臂状伸出,先下弯再弧形上伸。蒴果线形,长1.5-2.5厘米,宽约1毫米,蛇形弯曲,具1列种子。种子小,黑亮,具伸展狭直的种阜。
分布(Distribution):产西藏、云南、贵州、四川、青海、甘肃、宁夏、陕西、山西、河北、河南、湖北、湖南、江西、安徽、台湾,生于海拔(200-)1100-2700 (-4000)米的沟谷林缘。锡金、不丹、日本有分布。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 7 | Papaveraceae  | Corydalis 
Corydalis ophiocarpa J. D. Hooker & Thomson, Fl. Ind. 1: 259. 1855.
蛇果黄堇 she guo huang jin
Corydalis japonica Makino; C. makinoana Matsumura, nom. illeg. superfl.; C. streptocarpa Maximowicz.
Herbs, biennial (rarely annual), taprooted, glaucous. Stems few to several, ± erect, 40-100 cm, sometimes very thick, especially at base, conspicuously winged-ridged, leafy, branched. Basal leaves many, 10-50 cm; petiole ca. equal to blade, winged, especially broadly so toward base; blade oblong, bipinnate; primary pinnae 4-6 pairs, petiolulate; secondary pinnules 2(or 3) pairs, sessile, obovate to oblong, entire to 3-5-lobed; segments 3-10 × 1-5 mm, apex obtuse to rarely acute. Lower cauline leaves like basal leaves, upper ones smaller and much more shortly stalked. Racemes spikelike, long, 10-30 cm, 20-40(-70)-flowered (or fewer flowered in lateral racemes), with short peduncle; bracts linear-lanceolate, 2-5 mm. Pedicel 5-7 mm. Flowers pale yellow to whitish, usually dark tipped, 11-12 mm. Sepals ca. 1 × 1 mm, rarely to 3 mm, margin finely dentate, apex acute. Outer petals obtuse; spur ± ascending, broadly saccate, ca. 3 mm; nectary extended through ca. 1/2 of spur; inner petals 8-10 mm, tipped with dark purple, with crest clearly extending beyond apex, claw shorter than limb. Stigma bifid, lobes narrow, reflexed-geniculate with 2 papillae flanking apical division, one papilla terminating each lobe, and each lobe usually with a pair of submarginal geminate lateral papillae. Capsule reflexed, linear, strongly contorted, 20-30 × ca. 1.5 mm. Seeds in 1 row, black, shiny, ovoid, ca. 1 mm, pitted, keeled, with extended narrow straight caruncle. Fl. and fr. May-Aug.
River valleys, forest margins, woods, meadows; (200-)1100-2700(-4000) m. Anhui, Gansu, Guizhou, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan [Bhutan, India (Sikkim), Japan].
 


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