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益母草Leonurus japonicus

时间:2013-09-25 13:10来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):益母草 学名( Scientific Name ): Leonurus japonicus Houtt. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 益母蒿、红花艾 异名( Synonym ): Leonurus artemisia (Lour.) S. Y. Hu Leonurus hetero
中文名(Chinese Name):益母草
学名(Scientific Name):Leonurus japonicus Houtt.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):益母蒿、红花艾
异名(Synonym):Leonurus artemisia (Lour.) S. Y. Hu  Leonurus heterophyllus Sweet  Stachys artemisia Lour.  Leonurus altissimus Bunge ex Benth.  Leonurus cuneifolius Raf.  Leonurus japonicus f. albiflorus (Migo) Y.C.Zhu  Leonurus japonicus f. niveus (A.I.Baranov & Skvortsov) H.Hara  Leonurus mexicanus Sessé & Moc.  Leonurus sibiricus f. niveus A.I.Baranov & Skvortsov  Leonurus sibiricus var. albiflorus Migo
科属(Family & Genus):唇形科(Labiatae)益母草属
形态特征(Description):一年生或二年生草本,有于其上密生须根的主根。茎直立,通常高30-120厘米,钝四棱形,微具槽,有倒向糙伏毛,在节及棱上尤为密集,在基部有时近于无毛,多分枝,或仅于茎中部以上有能育的小枝条。叶轮廓变化很大,茎下部叶轮廓为卵形,基部宽楔形,掌状3裂,裂片呈长圆状菱形至卵圆形,通常长2.5-6厘米,宽1.5-4厘米,裂片上再分裂,上面绿色,有糙伏毛,叶脉稍下陷,下面淡绿色,被疏柔毛及腺点,叶脉突出,叶柄纤细,长2-3厘米,由于叶基下延而在上部略具翅,腹面具槽,背面圆形,被糙伏毛;茎中部叶轮廓为菱形,较小,通常分裂成3个或偶有多个长圆状线形的裂片,基部狭楔形,叶柄长0.5-2厘米;花序最上部的苞叶近于无柄,线形或线状披针形,长3-12厘米,宽2-8毫米,全缘或具稀少牙齿。轮伞花序腋生,具8-15花,轮廓为圆球形,径2-2.5厘米,多数远离而组成长穗状花序;小苞片刺状,向上伸出,基部略弯曲,比萼筒短,长约5毫米,有贴生的微柔毛;花梗无。花萼管状钟形,长6-8毫米,外面有贴生微柔毛,内面于离基部1/3以上被微柔毛,5脉,显著,齿5,前2齿靠合,长约3毫米,后3齿较短,等长,长约2毫米,齿均宽三角形,先端刺尖。花冠粉红至淡紫红色,长1-1.2厘米,外面于伸出萼筒部分被柔毛,冠筒长约6毫米,等大,内面在离基部1/3处有近水平向的不明显鳞毛毛环,毛环在背面间断,其上部多少有鳞状毛,冠檐二唇形,上唇直伸,内凹,长圆形,长约7毫米,宽4毫米,全缘,内面无毛,边缘具纤毛,下唇略短于上唇,内面在基部疏被鳞状毛,3裂,中裂片倒心形,先端微缺,边缘薄膜质,基部收缩,侧裂片卵圆形,细小。雄蕊4,均延伸至上唇片之下,平行,前对较长,花丝丝状,扁平,疏被鳞状毛,花药卵圆形,二室。花柱丝状,略超出于雄蕊而与上唇片等长,无毛,先端相等2浅裂,裂片钻形。花盘平顶。子房褐色,无毛。小坚果长圆状三棱形,长2.5毫米,顶端截平而略宽大,基部楔形,淡褐色,光滑。花期通常在6-9月,果期9-10月。
分布(Distribution):产全国各地,生长于多种生境,海拔可高达3400米。俄罗斯、朝鲜、日本、热带亚洲、非洲、以及美洲各地有分布。
用途(Use):
引自植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 17 Page 163
Leonurus japonicus Houttuyn, Nat. Hist. 9: 366. 1778.
益母草 yi mu cao| Lamiaceae  | Leonurus
Leonurus artemisia (Loureiro) S. Y. Hu; L. heterophyllus Sweet; Stachys artemisia Loureiro.
Herbs annual or biennial. Taproots with dense, fibrous rootlets. Stems erect, 30-120 cm, retrorse strigose, nodes and angles densely strigose. Petiole of stem leaves 0.5-3 cm, narrowly winged at apex; lower stem leaf blades ovate, base broadly cuneate, 3-palmatipartite; lobes oblong-rhombic to ovate, 2.5-6 × 1.5-4 cm, pinnately divided, adaxially strigose, abaxially pilose, glandular; mid stem leaf blade rhombic, palmatipartite, lobes oblong-linear, base narrow cuneate. Verticillasters 8-15-flowered, 2-2.5 cm in diam.; floral leaves subsessile, linear to linear-lanceolate, 3-12 × 2-8 mm, entire or dentate; bracteoles spiny, shorter than calyx, ca. 5 mm, appressed puberulent. Flowers sessile. Calyx tubular-campanulate, 6-8 mm, appressed puberulent; teeth broadly triangular, 2-3 mm, apex spinescent. Corolla white or reddish to purplish red, 1-1.2 cm, villous; tube ca. 6 mm, inconspicuously scaly annulate inside; upper lip straight, concave, oblong, ca. 7 × 4 mm, margin entire, ciliate; lower lip slightly shorter, base sparsely scaly; middle lobe obcordate, base constricted, margin membranous, apex emarginate; lateral lobes ovate. Filaments sparsely scaly. Nutlets brownish, oblong, triquetrous, ca. 2.5 mm, base cuneate, apex truncate, smooth. Fl. Jun-Sep, fr. Sep-Oct.
Sunny areas; 0-3400 m. Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Cambodia, Japan, Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam; Africa, North America, South America]
Used medicinally.






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