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野老鹳草Geranium carolinianum

时间:2013-09-11 11:58来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):野老鹳草 学名( Scientific Name ): Geranium carolinianum L. 英文名( English Common Name ): Carolina geranium 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 异名( Synonym ): Geranium carolinum Crantz Geranium lenticulum R
中文名(Chinese Name):野老鹳草
学名(Scientific Name):Geranium carolinianum L.
英文名(English Common Name):Carolina geranium
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Geranium carolinum Crantz  Geranium lenticulum Raf.  Geranium sphaerospermum Fernald  Geranium thermale Rydb.  Geranium langloisii Greene  Geranium carolinianum var. carolinianum L.  Geranium dissectum var. carolinianum (L.) Hook. f.  Geranium carolinianum var. sphaerospermum (Fernald) Breitung  Geranium carolinianum f. albiflorum B. Boivin  Geranium carolinianum var. confertiflorum Fernald
科属Family & Genus):牻牛儿苗科(Geraniaceae)老鹳草属
形态特征Description):一年生草本,高20-60厘米,根纤细,单一或分枝,茎直立或仰卧,单一或多数,具棱角,密被倒向短柔毛。基生叶早枯,茎生叶互生或最上部对生;托叶披针形或三角状披针形,长5-7毫米,宽1.5-2.5毫米,外被短柔毛;茎下部叶具长柄,柄长为叶片的2-3倍,被倒向短柔毛,上部叶柄渐短;叶片圆肾形,长2-3厘米,宽4-6厘米,基部心形,掌状5-7裂近基部,裂片楔状倒卵形或菱形,下部楔形、全缘,上部羽状深裂,小裂片条状矩圆形,先端急尖,表面被短伏毛,背面主要沿脉被短伏毛。花序腋生和顶生,长于叶,被倒生短柔毛和开展的长腺毛,每总花梗具2花,顶生总花梗常数个集生,花序呈伞形状;花梗与总花梗相似,等于或稍短于花;苞片钻状,长3-4毫米,被短柔毛;萼片长卵形或近椭圆形,长5-7毫米,宽3-4毫米,先端急尖,具长约1毫米尖头,外被短柔毛或沿脉被开展的糙柔毛和腺毛;花瓣淡紫红色,倒卵形,稍长于萼,先端圆形,基部宽楔形,雄蕊稍短于萼片,中部以下被长糙柔毛;雌蕊稍长于雄蕊,密被糙柔毛。蒴果长约2厘米,被短糙毛,果瓣由喙上部先裂向下卷曲。花期4-7月,果期5-9月。
分布(Distribution):原产美洲,我国为逸生,生于平原和低山荒坡杂草丛中。
用途(Use):全草入药,有祛风收敛和止泻之效。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 11 Page 8, 11, 14      
Geranium carolinianum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 682. 1753.
野老鹳草 ye lao guan cao| Geraniaceae  | Geranium
Annuals. Stem 10-65(-70) cm tall, erect, not rooting at nodes, with abundant 0.2-1.1 mm patent to retrorse nonglandular trichomes and scattered 0.2-0.7 mm patent glandular trichomes. Stipules lanceolate to subulate, distinct. Leaves 1-3 alternate but opposite at inflorescence; petiole with usually 0.2-1.1 mm patent nonglandular trichomes and scattered glandular trichomes; leaf blade 2.2-6.5 cm, palmately cleft, ratio of main sinus/middle segment length = 0.7-0.9, pilose with appressed nonglandular trichomes; segments 5(or 7), rhombic, 2-5 mm wide at base, 5-12-lobed in distal half, ratio of second sinus/middle segment length = 0.27-0.31. Cymules in dense aggregates at apex of each branch or solitary in forks, 2(or 3)-flowered; peduncle 0-2.5(-6) cm. Pedicel 3-11 mm, with 0.2-0.7 mm patent or sometimes retrorse but not appressed nonglandular trichomes and 0.3-0.6 mm patent glandular trichomes; bracteoles lanceolate. Sepals 5-6.5 mm, mucro 1.5-2 mm, ratio of mucro/sepal length = ca. 0.3, outside with 0.1-0.6 mm antrorse to patent nonglandular trichomes and 0.2-0.5 mm patent glandular trichomes, inside glabrous. Petals white or pale purple, 5.5-6 mm, erect to patent, inside glabrous, margin basally ciliate, apex rounded or slightly notched. Staminal filaments whitish, lanceolate to lanceolate with an abruptly narrowed apex, abaxially sparsely pilose and basal half ciliate, trichomes 0.1-0.3 mm; anthers yellowish, 0.4-0.6 mm. Nectaries 5, hemispheric, glabrous. Stigma pinkish. Fruit 1.9-2.5 cm, erect when immature; mericarps smooth, with a basal callus, with 0.5-1.8 mm patent to antrorse nonglandular trichomes and sometimes 0.4-1 mm patent glandular trichomes; rostrum 1.5-1.9 cm, with a 1-2 mm narrowed apex; stigmatic remains 0.7-1.4 mm. Seeds 2-2.2 mm. Fl. Apr-Jul, fr. May-Sep. 2n = 46-48, 52.
Plains, weedy areas; sea level to 800 m. Naturalized in Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Guangxi, Hubei, Hunan, S Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Sichuan (Yanyuan), Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [native to North America].
This species has distinctive mericarps that are blackish when ripe and that have long patent trichomes. Presence of glandular trichomes is rather variable along plant. The whole plant is used in Chinese medicine for relieving rheumatic pains and colds.
This species is also a naturalized weed in South America, N Europe, and Japan.




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