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沙枣Elaeagnus angustifolia

时间:2013-09-09 08:22来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 沙枣 学名( Scientific Name ): Elaeagnus angustifolia L. 英文名( English Common Name ): Russian olive 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 刺柳、银柳胡颓子 异名( Synonym ): Elaeagnus hortensis Bieb. Elaeagnus
中文名(Chinese Name):沙枣
学名(Scientific Name):Elaeagnus angustifolia L.
英文名(English Common Name):Russian olive
别名(Chinese Common Name):刺柳、银柳胡颓子
异名(Synonym):Elaeagnus hortensis Bieb.  Elaeagnus oleaster L.  Elaeagnus angustifolia var. virescens Sosnowsky  Elaeagnus angustifolia f. culta Sosnowsky  Elaeagnus angustifolia var. caspica Sosnowsky  Elaeagnus angustifolia subsp. orientalis (L.) Soják  Elaeagnus angustifolia var. iliensis Musch.  Elaeagnus dactyliformis Schltdl.  Elaeagnus erivanensis Fisch. ex Schltdl.  Elaeagnus hortensis subsp. continentalis Servett.  Elaeagnus hortensis subsp. littoralis Servett.  Elaeagnus hortensis subsp. moorcroftii (Wall. ex Schltdl.) Servett.  Elaeagnus hortensis subsp. songorica (Bernh. ex Schltdl.) Servett.  Elaeagnus hortensis var. igda Servett.  Elaeagnus hortensis var. microcarpa Servett.  Elaeagnus hortensis var. orientalis (L.) Loudon  Elaeagnus hortensis var. songorica Bernh. ex Schltdl.  Elaeagnus igda (Servett.) Tzvelev  Elaeagnus incana Lam.  Elaeagnus inermis Mill.  Elaeagnus caspica (Sosn.) Grossh.  Elaeagnus litoralis (Servett.) Kozlowsk.  Elaeagnus longipes var. hortensis (M. Bieb.) Maxim.  Elaeagnus oxycarpa var. microcarpa (Servett.) Tzvelev  Elaeagnus songarica var. kozlovskajae Tzvelev  Elaeagnus songorica (Bernh. ex Schltdl.) Schltdl.  Elaeagnus spinosa L.  Elaeagnus tifliensis Vis.  Elaeagnus tomentosa Moench  Elaeagnus turcomanica Kozlowsk.
科属(Family & Genus):胡颓子科(Elaeagnaceae)胡颓子属
形态特征(Description):落叶乔木或小乔木,高5-10米,无刺或具刺,刺长30-40毫米,棕红色,发亮;幼枝密被银白色鳞片,老枝鳞片脱落,红棕色,光亮。叶薄纸质,矩圆状披针形至线状披针形,长3-7厘米,宽1-1.3厘米,顶端钝尖或钝形,基部楔形,全缘,上面幼时具银白色圆形鳞片,成熟后部分脱落,带绿色,下面灰白色,密被白色鳞片,有光泽,侧脉不甚明显;叶柄纤细,银白色,长5-10毫米。花银白色,直立或近直立,密被银白色鳞片,芳香,常l-3花簇生新枝基部最初5-6片叶的叶腋;花梗长2-3毫米;萼筒钟形,长4-5毫米,在裂片下面不收缩或微收缩,在子房上骤收缩,裂片宽卵形或卵状矩圆形,长3-4毫米,顶端钝渐尖,内面被白色星状柔毛;雄蕊几无花丝,花药淡黄色,矩圆形,长2.2毫米;花柱直立,无毛,上端甚弯曲;花盘明显,圆锥形,包围花柱的基部,无毛。果实椭圆形,长9-l2毫米,直径6-10毫米,粉红色,密被银白色鳞片;果肉乳白色,粉质;果梗短,粗壮,长3-6毫米。花期5-6月,果期9月。
分布(Distribution):产辽宁、河北、山西、河南、陕西、甘肃、内蒙古、宁夏、新疆、青海等。俄罗斯、中东、远东至欧洲也有。生于山地、平原、沙滩、荒漠中。
用途(Use):果肉含有糖分、淀粉、蛋白质、脂肪和维生素,可以生食或熟食,新疆地区将果实打粉掺在面粉内代主食,亦可酿酒、制醋酱、糕点等食品。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 13 Page 251, 264
Elaeagnus angustifolia Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 121. 1753.
沙枣 sha zao | Elaeagnaceae  | Elaeagnus
Shrubs or small trees, 3-7(-10) m tall. Bark reddish brown; spines absent or sharp, 0.7-3 cm; young branches and both leaf surfaces silvery white, densely stellate-scaly, or adaxially grayish green or green and nearly without scales (var. virescens). Petiole 5-8 mm, 1/5-1/4 as long as blade; leaf blade oblong-lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, sometimes elliptic-lanceolate, ovate, or oblong-ovate, (2.5-)4-8(-10) × 0.4-3.2(-4) cm, adaxially dull green, or both surfaces silvery, with only white scales, base usually broadly cuneate, apex obtuse or subacute. Flowers 1-3 in axils of older leaves. Pedicel short, ca. 2 mm. Flowers fragrant, outside silvery white, with dense white scales and sparse small yellowish glands, inside yellow. Calyx tube campanulate or broadly campanulate (f. culta), ca. as long as limb, 5-6 × 2.5-3(-5) mm; lobes lanceolate, ovate, or triangular-lanceolate, slightly shorter than tube, inside yellow and glabrous, with sparse small brownish glands, distinctly 3-veined, apex ± acute. Filaments short; anthers oblong. Style base enclosed by tubular disk, curved in upper part, ca. as long as calyx. Drupe yellowish brown, globose-ovoid, globose, or subglobose (var. caspica), 0.7-2.5 × 0.5-1.3 cm, densely silvery scaly when young, subglabrous when mature; scales sparse, brownish; flesh sweet, mealy; stone oblong, oblong-ovoid, or narrowly cylindric (f. culta), both ends obtuse or pointed. Fl. May-Jun, fr. Aug-Oct. 2n = 28.
Sea coasts, river and lake shores, dry river beds, mountains. Gansu, Hebei, Henan, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Xinjiang [Afghanistan, NW India, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan; SW Asia, E Europe; naturalized in North America].
This species is widely grown for its fruit ("Russian Olive," "Trebizond date"), and local cultivars have been developed. It also produces a valuable gum and useful timber, and is used for land reclamation. It can be invasive and has been declared a noxious weed in some parts of North America.




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