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苍耳Xanthium sibiricum

时间:2018-08-12 09:15来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):苍耳 学名( Scientific Name ): Xanthium sibiricum Lour. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 老苍子、胡苍子 异名( Synonym ): Xanthium sibiricum Patrin ex Widder Xanthium strumariu








中文名(Chinese Name):苍耳
学名(Scientific Name):Xanthium sibiricum Lour.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):老苍子、胡苍子
异名(Synonym):Xanthium sibiricum Patrin ex Widder  Xanthium strumarium var. indicum Debeaux  Xanthium japonicum Widder  Xanthium chinense Mill.  Xanthium wootonii Cockerell  Xanthium occidentale Bertol.  Xanthium oviforme Wallr.  Xanthium pungens Wallr.  Xanthium abyssinicum Wallr.  Xanthium echinatum Murray  Xanthium speciosum Kearney  Xanthium chasei Fernald  Xanthium natalense Widder  Xanthium americanum Walter  Xanthium varians Greene  Xanthium cylindricum Millsp. & Sherff  Xanthium chinese   Xanthium arenarium Lasch  Xanthium globosum C.Shull  Xanthium curvescens Millsp. & Sherff  Xanthium acerosum Greene  Xanthium commune Britton  Xanthium glanduliferum Greene  Xanthium calvum Millsp. & Sherff  Xanthium campestre Greene  Xanthium cenchroides Millsp. & Sherff  Xanthium macounii Britton  Xanthium oligacanthum Piper  Xanthium cylindraceum Millsp. & Sherff  Xanthium strumarium var. glabratum (DC.) Cronquist  Xanthium strumarium var. canadense
科属(Family & Genus):菊科(Compositae)苍耳属
形态特征(Description):一年生草本,高20-90厘米。根纺锤状,分枝或不分枝。茎直立不枝或少有分枝,下部圆柱形,径4-10毫米,上部有纵沟,被灰白色糙伏毛。叶三角状卵形或心形,长4-9厘米,宽5-10厘米,近全缘,或有3-5不明显浅裂,顶端尖或钝,基部稍心形或截形,与叶柄连接处成相等的楔形,边缘有不规则的粗锯齿,有三基出脉,侧脉弧形,直达叶缘,脉上密被糙伏毛,上面绿色,下面苍白色,被糙伏毛;叶柄长3-11厘米。雄性的头状花序球形,径4-6毫米,有或无花序梗,总苞片长圆状披针形,长1-1.5毫米,被短柔毛,花托柱状,托片倒披针形,长约2毫米,顶端尖,有微毛,有多数的雄花,花冠钟形,管部上端有5宽裂片;花药长圆状线形;雌性的头状花序椭圆形,外层总苞片小,披针形,长约3毫米,被短柔毛,内层总苞片结合成囊状,宽卵形或椭圆形,绿色,淡黄绿色或有时带红褐色,在瘦果成熟时变坚硬,连同喙部长12-15毫米,宽4-7毫米,外面有疏生的具钩状的刺,刺极细而直,基部微增粗或几不增粗,长1-1.5毫米,基部被柔毛,常有腺点,或全部无毛;喙坚硬,锥形,上端略呈镰刀状,长1.5-2.5毫米,常不等长,少有结合而成1个喙。瘦果2,倒卵形。花期7-8月,果期9-10月。
分布(Distribution):我国大部分省区有分布,生于平原、丘陵、低山、荒野的路边、田边。俄罗斯、伊朗、印度、朝鲜及日本也有。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 20-21 Page 876
Xanthium strumarium Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 987. 1753.
苍耳 cang er| Asteraceae  | Xanthium
Xanthium americanum Walter; X. chasei Fernald; X. chinense Miller; X. curvescens Millspaugh & Sherff; X. cylindricum Millspaugh & Sherff; X. echinatum Murray; X. echinellum Greene ex Rydberg; X. globosum C. Shull; X. inaequilaterum Candolle; X. indicum J. Koenig ex Roxburgh var. inaequilaterum (Candolle) Miquel; X. inflexum Mackenzie & Bush; X. italicum Moretti; X. japonicum Widder; X. mongolicum Kitagawa; X. orientale Linnaeus; X. oviforme Wallroth; X. pensylvanicum Wallroth; X. sibiricum Patrin ex Widder; X. sibiricum var. jingyuanense H. G. Hou & Y. T. Lu; X. sibiricum var. subinerme Widder; X. speciosum Kearney; X. strumarium var. canadense (Miller) Torrey & A. Gray; X. strumarium var. glabratum (Candolle) Cronquist; X. strumarium var. japonicum (Widder) H. Hara; X. strumarium subsp. sibiricum (Patrin ex Widder) Greuter; X. varians Greene; X. wootonii Cockerell.
Herbs, annual, 20-120 cm; nodal spines absent. Petiole 3.5-10 cm, not winged; median cauline leaves ovate-deltate, 9-25 cm, papery, densely scabrid on both surfaces, base shallowly cordate to broadly cuneate, margin irregularly dentate, often obsoletely 3-lobed, apex acute. Capitula monoecious. Male capitula in terminal umbels; phyllaries 1-seriate, oblong-lanceolate, ca. 2.2 mm; outer paleae oblong-lanceolate, inner paleae lanceolate, ca. 2.2 mm; corolla white, tubular, ca. 2.5 mm, 5-dentate. Female capitula axillary; phyllaries 1-seriate, oblong-lanceolate, ca. 3 mm, inner bracts connate with outer paleae. Burs sessile, oblong, ellipsoid, or ovoid, 10-18 × 6-12 mm, densely puberulent, 2-beaked. Fl. Jul-Aug, fr. Sep-Oct. 2n = 36.
Damp or seasonally wet often alkaline soils, wastelands, margins of agriculture, common weed. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [a pantropical weed, known to be widely distributed in both Old and New Worlds, but most probably originating in the New World].
(责任编辑:徐晔春)
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