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蒲公英Taraxacum mongolicum

时间:2013-07-23 13:52来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):蒲公英 学名( Scientific Name ): Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 蒙古蒲公英、婆婆






中文名(Chinese Name):蒲公英
学名(Scientific Name):Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):蒙古蒲公英、婆婆丁、黄花地丁
异名(Synonym):Taraxacum hondae Nakai et Koidz. ex Koidz.  Taraxacum huhhoticum Z. Xu et H. C. Fu  Taraxacum kansuense Nakai ex Koidz.  Taraxacum hangchouense Koidz.  Taraxacum liaotungense f. lobulatum Kitag.  Taraxacum pseudodissectum Nakai et Koidz.  Taraxacum argute-denticulatum Nakai et Koidz. ex Koidz.  Taraxacum mongolicum var. formosanum (Kitam.) Kitam.
科属(Family & Genus):菊科(Compositae)蒲公英属
形态特征(Description):多年生草本。根圆柱状,黑褐色,粗壮。叶倒卵状披针形、倒披针形或长圆状披针形,长4-20厘米,宽1-5厘米,先端钝或急尖,边缘有时具波状齿或羽状深裂,有时倒向羽状深裂或大头羽状深裂,顶端裂片较大,三角形或三角状戟形,全缘或具齿,每侧裂片3-5片,裂片三角形或三角状披针形,通常具齿,平展或倒向,裂片间常夹生小齿,基部渐狭成叶柄,叶柄及主脉常带红紫色,疏被蛛丝状白色柔毛或几无毛。花葶1至数个,与叶等长或稍长,高10-25厘米,上部紫红色,密被蛛丝状白色长柔毛;头状花序直径约30-40毫米;总苞钟状,长12-14毫米,淡绿色;总苞片2-3层,外层总苞片卵状披针形或披针形,长8-10毫米,宽1-2毫米,边缘宽膜质,基部淡绿色,上部紫红色,先端增厚或具小到中等的角状突起;内层总苞片线状披针形,长10-16毫米,宽2-3毫米,先端紫红色,具小角状突起;舌状花黄色,舌片长约8毫米,宽约1.5毫米,边缘花舌片背面具紫红色条纹,花药和柱头暗绿色。瘦果倒卵状披针形,暗褐色,长约4-5毫米,宽约1-1.5毫米,上部具小刺,下部具成行排列的小瘤,顶端逐渐收缩为长约1毫米的圆锥至圆柱形喙基,喙长6-10毫米,纤细;冠毛白色,长约6毫米。花期4-9月,果期5-10月。
分布(Distribution):产我国大部分地区,生于中、低海拔地区的山坡草地、路边、田野、河滩中。朝鲜、蒙古及俄罗斯也有。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 20-21 Page 297, 298
Taraxacum mongolicum Handel-Mazzetti, Monogr. Taraxacum. 67. 1907.
蒙古蒲公英 meng gu pu gong ying | Asteraceae  | Taraxacum
Herbs 8-25 cm. Petiole usually narrow; leaf blade mid-green, oblanceolate, 6-15 × 2-3.5 cm, subglabrous to sparsely arachnoid, pinnatilobed, pinnatisect, or rarely undivided; lateral lobes 3 or 4 pairs, broadly triangular, obtusely deltoid, or broadly linear, patent to recurved, distal margin sparsely dentate or entire, apex obtuse; interlobes broad, sometimes spotted dark purple, margin entire to sparsely dentate; terminal lobe broadly triangular, apex broadly obtuse. Scapes single or rarely branched with an ascending side scape, brownish green, equaling to slightly overtopping leaves, scattered arachnoid but densely arachnoid below capitulum. Capitulum 3-4 cm wide. Involucre mid-green, 1-1.2 cm wide, base ± rounded. Outer phyllaries 9-15, mid-green to pale green, ± not imbricate, linear-lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate, outermost ones 6-9 × 0.8-2.5 mm and ca. 1/2 as long as inner ones, loosely appressed, distinctly veined, border indistinct, paler green to membranous, often suffused pink, and 0.1-0.3 mm wide, margin ± densely ciliate, apex with a green or purplish thick horn to 1.5 mm; inner phyllaries 1.1-1.5 cm, apex flat to corniculate. Ligules yellow; outer ligules outside striped grayish purple; inner ligules with blackish to purple apical teeth. Stigmas pale green. Anthers polliniferous; pollen grains irregular in size. Achene ± brown to grayish brown, 4.2-4.6 × 1.1-1.3 mm; body tuberculate throughout, apically densely tuberculate-squamulose, gradually narrowing into a subconic 1-1.2 mm cone; beak 7-10 mm. Pappus yellowish, ca. 6 mm. Fl. spring, occasionally also to late summer. Agamosperm. 2n = 24*.
● Abandoned fields, grasslands, along paths and roads; 800-2000(-2800) m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Zhejiang.
The stated distribution of Taraxacum mongolicum is based on the report in FRPS (80(2): 34. 1999), but material has not been revised and can only be confirmed for Hebei, Shanxi, Sichuan, and Xizang. However, the reported occurrences in Gansu, Qinghai, Taiwan, and Yunnan are improbable, and material under that name in herbaria from these provinces belongs to other taxa.
For Taraxacum mongolicum var. caninum and T. mongolicum var. laeve see the discussion of T. sect. Mongolica, above.
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