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一年蓬Erigeron annuus

时间:2013-07-23 14:21来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):一年蓬 学名( Scientific Name ): Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers. 英文名( English Common Name ): eastern daisy fleabane 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 千层塔、野蒿 异名( Synonym ): Aster annuus L. Phalacroloma






中文名(Chinese Name):一年蓬
学名(Scientific Name):Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers. 
英文名(English Common Name):eastern daisy fleabane
别名(Chinese Common Name):千层塔、野蒿
异名(Synonym):Aster annuus L.  Phalacroloma annuum (L.) Dumort.  Aster stenactis E.H.L.Krause  Doronicum bellidiflorum Schrank
科属(Family & Genus):菊科(Compositae)飞蓬属
形态特征(Description):一年生或二年生草本,茎粗壮,高30-100厘米,基部径6毫米,直立,上部有分枝,绿色,下部被开展的长硬毛,上部被较密的上弯的短硬毛。基部叶花期枯萎,长圆形或宽卵形,少有近圆形,长4-17厘米,宽1.5-4厘米,或更宽,顶端尖或钝,基部狭成具翅的长柄,边缘具粗齿,下部叶与基部叶同形,但叶柄较短,中部和上部叶较小,长圆状披针形或披针形,长1-9厘米,宽0.5-2厘米,顶端尖,具短柄或无柄,边缘有不规则的齿或近全缘,最上部叶线形,全部叶边缘被短硬毛,两面被疏短硬毛,或有时近无毛。头状花序数个或多数,排列成疏圆锥花序,长6-8毫米,宽10-15毫米,总苞半球形,总苞片3层,草质,披针形,长3-5毫米,宽0.5-1毫米,近等长或外层稍短,淡绿色或多少褐色,背面密被腺毛和疏长节毛;外围的雌花舌状,2层,长6-8毫米,管部长1-1.5毫米,上部被疏微毛,舌片平展,白色,或有时淡天蓝色,线形,宽0.6毫米,顶端具2小齿,花柱分枝线形;中央的两性花管状,黄色,管部长约0.5毫米,檐部近倒锥形,裂片无毛;瘦果披针形,长约1.2毫米,扁压,被疏贴柔毛;冠毛异形,雌花的冠毛极短,膜片状连成小冠,两性花的冠毛2层,外层鳞片状,内层为10-15条长约2毫米的刚毛。花期6-9月。
分布(Distribution):原产北美,在我国已归化,常生于路边旷野或山坡荒地中。
用途(Use):全草可入药,有治疟的良效。
引自中国植物志英文版 FOC Vol. 20-21 Page 644, 645
Erigeron annuus (Linnaeus) Persoon, Syn. Pl. 2: 431. 1807.
一年蓬 yi nian peng| Asteraceae  | Erigeron
Aster annuus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 875. 1753; Erigeron heterophyllus Muhlenberg ex Willdenow; Stenactis annua (Linnaeus) Cassini ex Lessing.
Herbs, annual, [10-]30-100[-150] cm tall. Stems erect, branched in upper part, sparsely hispid, strigose above (hairs spreading). Leaves: surfaces strigose-hirsute or sometimes glabrate, eglandular; basal withered at anthesis, winged petiolate, blade elliptic or broadly ovate, rarely spatulate, 4-17 × 1.5-4 cm or more, base attenuate, margin coarsely serrate, scabrous, apex acute or obtuse; lower cauline similar, shortly petiolate, mid and upper shortly petiolate or sessile, blade oblong-lanceolate or lanceolate, 1-9 × [0.3-]0.5-2 cm, margin irregularly serrate to subentire, apex acute, uppermost linear. Capitula 5-50+, in loose paniculiform or corymbiform synflorescences, 6-8 × 10-15 mm. Involucre hemispheric; phyllaries 2- or 3(or 4)-seriate, greenish or ± brownish, abaxially sparsely hirsute, minutely glandular, subequal or outer shorter, lanceolate, 3-5 × 0.5-1 mm, herbaceous. Ray florets 80-125, 2-seriate, [4-]6-8[-10] mm, tube 1-1.5 mm, sparsely hairy above, lamina white or sometimes bluish, linear, ca. 5 × 0.6 mm, flat, tardily coiling; disk florets yellow, 2-2.8 mm, sparsely hairy, lobes glabrous. Achenes lanceolate, flattened, [0.8-]1.2 mm, sparsely strigillose. Pappus 2-seriate, outer of scales or setae, inner absent in ray florets, in disk florets of [8-]10-15 long bristles. Fl. Jun-Sep.
Wastelands, roadsides; sea level to 1100 m. Naturalized in Anhui, Fujian, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Shandong, Sichuan, Xizang [native to E North America; widely introduced worldwide].
This species is spreading in China and is probably more widespread than shown here. (责任编辑:徐晔春)
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