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野菊Chrysanthemum indicum

时间:2013-07-23 14:11来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):野菊 学名( Scientific Name ): Chrysanthemum indicum Thunb. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 路边黄、黄菊仔 异名( Synonym ): Dendranthema indicum (Linn.) Des Moul. Chrysanthem






中文名(Chinese Name):野菊
学名(Scientific Name):Chrysanthemum indicum Thunb.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):路边黄、黄菊仔
异名(Synonym):Dendranthema indicum (Linn.) Des Moul.  Chrysanthemum indicum var. edule Kitam.  Chrysanthemum nankingense Hand.-Mazz.  Chrysanthemum indicum var. coreanum H. Lév.  Chrysanthemum indicum var. acutum . Vyeki  Chrysanthemum lushanense Kitam.  Chrysanthemum indicum var. litorale Ling  Chrysanthemum indicum var. lushanense (Kitam.) Hand.-Mazz.  Chrysanthemum sabinii Lindl.  Tanacetum indicum (L.) Sch. Bip.  Arctotis elegans Thunb.  Bidens bardanna Wall.  Dendranthema nankingense (Hand.-Mazz.) X.D.Cui
科属(Family & Genus):菊科(Compositae)茼蒿属
形态特征(Description):多年生草本,高0.25-1米,有地下长或短匍匐茎。茎直立或铺散,分枝或仅在茎顶 有伞房状花序分枝。茎枝被稀疏的毛,上部及花序枝上的毛稍多或较多。基生叶和下部叶花期脱落。中部茎叶卵形、长卵形或椭圆状卵形,长3-7(10)厘米,宽2-4(7)厘米,羽状半裂、浅裂或分裂不明显而边缘有浅锯齿。基部截形或稍心形或宽楔形,叶柄长1-2厘米,柄基无耳或有分裂的叶耳。两面同色或几同色,淡绿色,或干后两面成橄榄色,有稀疏的短柔毛,或下面的毛稍多。头状花序直径1.5-2.5厘米,多数在茎枝顶端排成疏松的伞房圆锥花序或少数在茎顶排成伞房花序。总苞片约5层,外层卵形或卵状三角形,长2.5-3毫米,中层卵形,内层长椭圆形,长11毫米。全部苞片边缘白色或褐色宽膜质,顶端钝或圆。舌状花黄色,舌片长10-13毫米,顶端全缘或2-3齿。瘦果长1.5-1.8毫米。花期6-11月。
分布(Distribution):产东北、华北、华中、华南及西南各地,生于草地、灌丛、河边、田边及路旁。印度、日本、朝鲜及俄罗斯也有。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 20-21 Page 669, 670, 671
Chrysanthemum indicum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 889. 1753.
野菊 ye ju | Asteraceae  | Chrysanthemum
Chrysanthemum indicum var. coreanum H. Léveillé; C. indicum var. edule Kitamura; C. indicum var. hibernum Makino; C. indicum var. litorale Y. Ling; C. indicum var. lushanense (Kitamura) Handel-Mazzetti; C. lushanense Kitamura; C. nankingense Handel-Mazzetti; C. procumbens Loureiro; C. sabinii Lindley; Dendranthema indicum (Linnaeus) Des Moulins; D. indicum var. huludaoense G. Y. Zhang, L. J. Yu & Y. J. Liu; D. nankingense (Handel-Mazzetti) X. D. Cui; Matricaria indica (Linnaeus) Desrousseaux; Pyrethrum indicum (Linnaeus) Cassini (1826), not Sims (1813); Tanacetum indicum (Linnaeus) Schultz Bipontinus.
Herbs, perennial, 0.25-1 m tall, with long or short procumbent rhizomes. Stems erect or diffuse, branched, sparsely pilose. Lower leaves withered at anthesis. Middle stem leaves: petiole 1-2 cm; leaf blade ovate, long ovate, or elliptic-ovate, 3-7(-10) × 2-4(-7) cm, both surfaces pale green or olive, sparsely pubescent or less densely so abaxially, pinnatifid, pinnatilobed, or inconspicuously divided, base truncate, somewhat cordate or broadly cuneate. Synflorescence a lax terminal flat-topped cyme. Capitula many or few. Phyllaries in 5 rows, scarious margin broad, white or brown, apex obtuse or rounded, outer ones ovate or ovate-triangular, 2.5-3 mm, middle ones ovate, 6-8 mm, inner ones narrowly elliptic, ca. 1.1 cm. Ray floret lamina yellow, 1-1.3 cm, apex entire or 3-denticulate. Achenes 1.5-1.8 mm. Fl. and fr. Jun-Nov. 2n = 18, 35-38, 36*, 40, 54.
Grasslands on mountain slopes, thickets, wet places by rivers, fields, roadsides, saline places by seashores, under shrubs; 100-2900 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan [Bhutan, India, Japan, Korea, Nepal, Russia, Uzbekistan].
Chrysanthemum indicum is one of the main parents of the florists’ chrysanthemum, "C. grandiflorum" (see note under genus). The natural distribution within China is not clear because of confusion with cultivated plants in the "C. grandiflorum" complex.


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