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鬼吹箫Leycesteria formosa

时间:2013-07-19 13:28来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 鬼吹箫 学名( Scientific Name ): Leycesteria formosa Wall. 英文名( English Common Name ): Himalayan honeysuckle 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 云通 异名( Synonym ): Leycesteria formosa var. stenosepala R



中文名(Chinese Name):鬼吹箫
学名(Scientific Name):Leycesteria formosa Wall.
英文名(English Common Name): Himalayan honeysuckle
别名(Chinese Common Name):云通
异名(Synonym):Leycesteria formosa var. stenosepala Rehd.;Leycesteria limprichtii Winkler;Leycesteria formosa var. brachysepala Airy Shaw;Leycesteria formosa var. glandulosissima Airy Shaw
科属(Family & Genus):忍冬科(Caprifoliaceae)鬼吹箫属
形态特征(Description):灌木,高1-2 (-3) 米,全体常被或疏或密的暗红色短腺毛;小枝、叶柄、花序梗、苞片和萼齿均被弯伏短柔毛。叶纸质,卵状披针形、卵状矩圆形至卵形,长 (4-) 6-12 (-13) 厘米,先端长尾尖、渐尖或短尖,基部圆形至近心形或阔楔形,边常全缘,有时波状或具疏齿或有不整齐浅缺刻,上面被短糙毛,中脉毛较密,下面疏生弯伏短柔毛或近无毛;叶柄长5-12 (-15) 毫米。穗状花序顶生或腋生,每节具6朵花,具3朵花的聚伞花序对生,中央1花无柄,侧生2花具极短的柄,总花梗长 (8-) 10-25 (-30) 毫米;苞片叶状,绿色、带紫色或紫红色,每轮6枚,最下面一对较大,阔卵形、卵形至披针形,长达2 (-3.5) 厘米,先端短尖至尾尖;小苞片极小,长不足1毫米;萼筒矩圆形,长3-4毫米,密生糙毛和短腺毛,萼檐深5裂,裂片圆卵形、披针形至条状披针形,长1-3 (-5) 毫米,常2长3短;花冠白色或粉红色,有时带紫红色,漏斗状,长 (1.2-) 1.4-1.8厘米,外面被短柔毛,裂片圆卵形,长5毫米左右,筒外面基部具5个膨大成近圆形的囊肿,囊内密生淡黄褐色蜜腺;雄蕊约与花冠等长,花药矩圆形;花柱稍伸出花冠,柱头盾状;子房5室。果实由红色变黑紫色,卵圆形或近圆形,直径5-7毫米,具宿存萼齿;种子微小,多数,淡棕褐色,广椭圆形至矩圆形,稍扁平,长1.2-1.5毫米。花期 (5-) 6-9 (-10) 月,果熟期 (8-) 9-10月。
分布(Distribution):产四川、贵州、云南及西藏,生于海拔1100-3300米的山坡、山谷、溪边或河边的林下、林缘或灌丛中。东南亚也有。
用途(Use):全株可药用,有破血、祛风、平喘之效,主治风湿性关节炎、月经不调及尿道炎;西藏波密民间还用以治眼病。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 19 Page 619
Leycesteria formosa Wallich in Roxburgh, Fl. Ind. 2: 182. 1824.
鬼吹箫 gui chui xiao| Caprifoliaceae  | Leycesteria
 Leycesteria formosa
Credit: Harvard University Herbaria
Leycesteria formosa var. brachysepala Airy Shaw; L. formosa var. glandulosissima Airy Shaw; L. formosa var. stenosepala Rehder; L. limprichtii H. Winkler; L. sinensis Hemsley.
Shrubs, 1-5 m tall. Branches hollow, branchlets, petioles, peduncles, bracts, and sepals adpressed pubescent and sometimes glandular hairy. Petiole 5-15 mm; leaf blade ovate to lanceolate, 4-13 × 2-6 cm, both surfaces glabrescent to sparsely adpressed pubescent, base cuneate to subcordate, margin entire to dentate, occasionally irregularly sinuate, apex acuminate to caudate. Inflorescence terminal or axillary; peduncle 6-30 mm. Whorls 1-10, each whorl composed of 2 opposite sessile, 3-flowered cymes subtended by green, purplish, or purple-red leaflike involucral bracts and bracts; involucral pair of bracts up to 2.5 cm, 4 outer bracts narrower and shorter, 8 inner bracts very small. Ovary oblong, 3-4 mm, densely glandular hairy. Calyx shortly fused at base, sometimes to half way; lobes lanceolate to linear, sometimes deltoid, 1-9 mm. Corolla white to pink, sometimes purple-red, funnelform, 1.2-1.8 cm, outside pubescent; lobes orbicular-ovate, ca. 5 mm. Stamens subequaling corolla. Ovary 5-locular; style slightly exceeding corolla, glabrous. Berry red, turning black-purple, ovoid or subglobose, with persistent calyx, 5-7 mm in diam.; seeds minute, numerous, brownish, broadly ellipsoid to oblong, slightly compressed, ca. 1 mm. Fl. (May-)Jun-Sep(-Oct), fr. (Aug-)Sep-Oct. 2n = 18.
Forests, forest margins, scrub; 1100-3500 m. W Guizhou, W Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan [Bhutan, India, Kashmir, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan; widely cultivated and naturalized in Australia, Europe, North America, and Pacific islands (New Zealand)].
The name Leycesteria sinensis was published by Hemsley in Hooker’s Icon. Pl. (27: t. 2633. 1900). It is based on a single specimen collected by Henry (9692c) in Yunnan (mountains north of Mengtze, 2130 m) and does not appear to have been collected since then. This specimen has inflorescences with a single whorl, outer bracts broadly ovate, and calyx fused up to the middle with deltoid lobes; it falls within the variation of L. formosa.

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