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岳桦Betula ermanii

时间:2013-07-17 12:44来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 岳桦 学名( Scientific Name ): Betula ermanii Cham. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 冷桦 异名( Synonym ): Betula ulmifolia var. glandulosa H. J. P. Winkl. Betula ermanii var








中文名(Chinese Name):岳桦
学名(Scientific Name):Betula ermanii Cham.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name): 冷桦
异名(Synonym):Betula ulmifolia var. glandulosa H. J. P. Winkl.  Betula ermanii var. lanata Regel  Betula ermanii var. genuina H.J.P.Winkl.
科属(Family & Genus):桦木科Betulaceae桦木属
形态特征(Description):乔木;高8-15 (20)米;树皮灰白色,成层、大片剥裂。枝条红褐色,无毛;幼枝暗绿色,密被长柔毛,稍有树脂腺体;芽鳞密被白色绒毛。叶三角状卵形,宽卵形或卵形,长2-7厘米,宽1.2-5厘米,顶端锐尖、渐尖,有时成短尾状,基部圆形,截形,宽楔形或微心形,边缘具规则或不规则的锐尖重锯齿,上面疏被毛,下面几无毛,密被腺点,侧脉8-12对,两面沿脉均密被长柔毛;叶柄长1-2.4厘米,幼时密被长柔毛,以后毛渐脱落。果序单生,直立,矩圆形,长1.5-2.7厘米,直径8-15毫米;序梗短,长3-5毫米,密被白色长柔毛;果苞长约5-8毫米,除边缘具纤毛外,其余无毛,基部楔形,3枚裂片均为倒披针形或披针形,侧裂片近直立,稍短于中裂片。小坚果倒卵形或长卵形,长约2.5毫米,宽1-8-2毫米,膜质翅宽为果的其/2或1/3。
分布(Distribution):产于长白山和大、小兴安岭。生于海拔1000-1700米的山坡林中,长白山有纯林。苏联堪察加半岛、朝鲜、日本也有。
用途(Use):木材可供建筑。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 4 Page 310     
Betula ermanii Chamisso, Linnaea. 6: 537. 1831.
岳桦 yue hua| Betulaceae  | Betula
Trees to 20 m tall; bark grayish white, exfoliating in thin sheets. Branches red-brown, glabrous; branchlets brown-green, densely villous, resinous glandular; bud scales densely silky villous. Petiole 1-2.4 cm; leaf blade ovate, broadly ovate, or triangular-ovate, 2-7 × 1.2-5 cm, abaxially resinous punctate and villous, adaxially sparsely villous, base subrounded, truncate, broadly cuneate, or subcordate, margin irregularly and doubly mucronate serrate, apex acute, acuminate, or caudate-acuminate; lateral veins 8-12 on each side of midvein. Female inflorescence ovoid or oblong, 1.5-2.7 × 0.8-1.5 cm; peduncle 3-6 mm or obscure; bracts 5-8 mm, 3-lobed, lobes oblanceolate, lateral lobes spreading or erect, slightly shorter than middle lobe. Nutlet obovate or ovate-elliptic, 2.5-3 × 1.8-2 mm, with membranous wings ca. 1/2 as wide as nutlet. Fl. Jun-Jul, fr. Jul-Aug. 2n = 56.
Forming pure forest stands, but also in mixed forests of coniferous and broad-leaved trees; 1000-1700 m. Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol [Japan, N Korea, Russia (Kamchatka)]
The wood is hard and dense, and is used for construction and making furniture.
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