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石柑子Pothos chinensis

时间:2013-07-16 12:24来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):石柑子 学名( Scientific Name ): Pothos chinensis (Raf.) Merr. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 石藤、石柑儿、藤桔 异名( Synonym ): Pothos cathcartii Schott;Pothos balansae E






中文名(Chinese Name):石柑子
学名(Scientific Name):Pothos chinensis (Raf.) Merr.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):石藤、石柑儿、藤桔
异名(Synonym):Pothos cathcartii Schott;Pothos balansae Engl.;Pothos warburgii Engl.;Pothos chinensis var. lotienensis C. Y. Wu et H. Li;Pothos seemannii Schott;Tapanava chinensis Raf.;Pothos yunnanensis Engl.
科属(Family & Genus):天南星科(Araceae)石柑属
形态特征(Description):附生藤本,长0.4-6米。茎亚木质,淡褐色,近圆柱形,具纵条纹,粗约2厘米,节间长1-4厘米,节上常束生长1-3厘米的气生根;分枝,枝下部常具鳞叶1枚;鳞叶线形,长4-8厘米,宽3-7毫米,锐尖,具多数平行纵脉。叶片纸质,鲜时表面深绿色,背面淡绿色,干后表面黄绿色,背面淡黄色,椭圆形,披针状卵形至披针状长圆形,长6-13厘米,宽1.5 5-5.6厘米,先端渐尖至长渐尖,常有芒状尖头,基部钝;中肋在表面稍下陷,背面隆起,侧脉4对,最下一对基出,弧形上升,细脉多数,近平行;叶柄倒卵状长圆形或楔形,长1-4厘米,宽0.5-1.2厘米,约为叶片大小的1/6。花序腋生,基部具苞片4-5(-6)枚;苞片卵形,长5毫米,上部的渐大,纵脉多数;花序柄长0.8-1.8(-2)厘米;佛焰苞卵状,绿色,长8毫米,展开宽10(-15)毫米,锐尖;肉穗花序短,椭圆形至近圆球形,淡绿色、淡黄色,长7-8 (-11)毫米,粗5-6(-10)毫米,花序梗长3-5(-8)毫米。浆果黄绿色至红色,卵形或长圆形,长约1厘米。花果期四季。
分布(Distribution):产台湾、湖北、广东、广西、四川、贵州及云南等地,生于海拔2400米以下的阴湿密林中,常匍匐于岩石上或附生于树干上。越南、老挝及泰国也有。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 23 Page 6, 7
Pothos chinensis (Rafinesque) Merrill, J. Arnold Arbor. 29: 210. 1948.
石柑子 shi gan zi | Araceae  | Pothos
Tapanava chinensis Rafinesque, Fl. Tellur. 4: 14. 1838; Pothos balansae Engler; P. cathcartii Schott; P. chinensis var. lotienensis C. Y. Wu & H. Li; P. seemannii Schott; P. warburgii Engler; P. yunnanensis Engler.
Lianas, small to very large, to 10 m, root-climbing. Stem weakly 4-angled or terete in cross section, to 12 mm in diam. Leaves paler abaxially, bright to mid-green adaxially; petiole obovate-oblong to linear-oblong or narrowly triangular, 50-140 × 4-20 mm, broadly winged, base decurrent to clawed, apex truncate, rounded, or auriculate; each side with 2 or 3 secondary veins and numerous veinlets; leaf blade ovate to elliptic or lanceolate, 3-20.5 × 1.5-20.5 cm, apex attenuate-mucronate to acute or attenuate, minutely tubulate; each side with 2-4 intramarginal veins arising from base and either immediately diverging or remaining very close and parallel to midrib and then diverging further along leaf blade, submarginal collecting vein prominent. Flowering shoot much abbreviated, arising from most of mid- to distal leaf axils of fertile shoots. Inflorescences solitary or in pairs; peduncle erect to variously curved, green to brown tinged, 3-25 × 1.5-2.5 mm, rather stout. Spathe greenish white or green, occasionally faintly purple tinged, ovate, concave, 4-12 × 4-10 mm, base cordate, clasping and slightly decurrent on peduncle, margins inrolled, apex arched to recurved, acute to subacute with a rather stout mucro. Spadix stipitate; stipe erect, straight, green, terete, 5-10 × 1-1.25 mm; fertile zone pale green or white, globose to ovoid, 3.5-13 × 3-10 mm. Flowers 1-2 mm in diam. Fruit mid-green, ripening to scarlet, obclavate to ovoid or ellipsoid, 10-17.5 × 10-14 mm. Fl. and fr. throughout year.
Dense forests, moist mountain valleys, climbing on trees or creeping over rocks; below 2400 m. Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hubei, Hunan, Sichuan, Taiwan, SE Xizang (Mêdog), Yunnan [Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam].
Pothos balansae, P. cathcartii, P. chinensis, and P. warburgii are without doubt synonymous. They might be separable when only a few specimens of each entity are studied, but when a wide range of material is used the four merge together as one species, for which the earliest name is P. chinensis. See Boyce (Blumea 45: 147-204. 2000).
The whole plant is used medicinally to treat rheumatic arthralgia, traumatic injuries, fractures, coughs, and infantile malnutrition caused by intestinal parasites.
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