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半夏Pinellia ternata

时间:2013-07-16 12:28来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):半夏 学名( Scientific Name ): Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Makino 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 燕子尾、三步魂 异名( Synonym ): Pinellia tuberifera Ten.;Typhonium tuberculig




中文名(Chinese Name):半夏
学名(Scientific Name):Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Makino
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):燕子尾、三步魂
异名(Synonym):Pinellia tuberifera Ten.;Typhonium tuberculigerum Schott;Arum macrourum Bunge;Arum subulatum Desf.;Atherurus ternatus (Thunb.) Blume;Arisaema ternatum (Thunb.) Schott;Arisaema cochinchinense Blume;Arisaema loureiroi Blume;Arisaema macrourum (Bunge) Kunth;Pinellia angustata Schott;Pinellia cochinchinensis (Blume) W.Wight;Pinellia fornicata (Roth) Pritz.;Pinellia koreana K.Tae & J.H.Kim;Alocasia ternata (Thunb.) Raf.;Hemicarpurus fornicatus Nees;Pinellia ternata f. angustata (Schott) Makino;Pinellia ternata var. atropurpurea Makino;Pinellia ternata f. atropurpurea (Makino);Pinellia ternata var. angustata (Schott) Engl.;Pinellia tuberifera var. subpandurata Engl.;Pinellia ternata var. subpandurata (Engl.) Engl.; Pinellia ternata var. giraldiana Engl.;Pinellia ternata var. vulgaris Engl.;Pinellia zinguiensis H. Li 
科属(Family & Genus):天南星科(Araceae)半夏属
形态特征(Description):块茎圆球形,直径1-2厘米,具须根。叶2-5枚,有时1枚。叶柄长15-20厘米,基部具鞘,鞘内、鞘部以上或叶片基部(叶柄顶头)有直径3-5毫米的珠芽,珠芽在母株上萌发或落地后萌发;幼苗叶片卵状心形至戟形,为全缘单叶,长2-3厘米,宽2-2.5厘米;老株叶片3全裂,裂片绿色,背淡,长圆状椭圆形或披针形,两头锐尖,中裂片长3-10厘米,宽1-3厘米;侧裂片稍短;全缘或具不明显的浅波状圆齿,侧脉8-10对,细弱,细脉网状,密集,集合脉2圈。花序柄长25-30(-35)厘米,长于叶柄。佛焰苞绿色或绿白色,管部狭圆柱形,长1.5-2厘米;檐部长圆形,绿色,有时边缘青紫色,长4-5厘米,宽1.5厘米,钝或锐尖。肉穗花序:雌花序长2厘米,雄花序长5-7毫米,其中间隔3毫米;附属器绿色变青紫色,长6-10厘米,直立,有时“S”形弯曲。浆果卵圆形,黄绿色,先端渐狭为明显的花柱。花期5-7月,果8月成熟。
分布(Distribution):除内蒙、新疆、青海及西藏没有外,全国广布,生于海拔2500米以下的草坡、荒地、田边或疏林下。朝鲜、日本也有。
用途(Use):块茎入药,有毒,能燥湿化痰,降逆止呕,生用消疖肿;主治咳嗽痰多、恶心呕吐;外用治急性乳腺炎、急慢性化浓性中耳炎。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 23 Page 3, 40, 41, 42
Pinellia ternata (Thunberg) Tenore ex Breitenbach, Bot. Zeitung. 37: 687. 1879.
半夏 ban xia | Araceae  | Pinellia
Arum ternatum Thunberg in Murray, Syst. Veg., ed. 14, 827. 1784; Arisaema loureiroi Blume; A. macrourum (Bunge) Kunth; A. ternatum (Thunberg) Schott; Arum atrorubens Sprengel (1826), not Linnaeus (1753); A. bulbiferum Salisbury; A. bulbosum Persoon ex Kunth; A. fornicatum Roth; A. macrourum Bunge; A. subulatum Desfontaines; A. triphyllum Houttuyn (1774), not Linnaeus (1753); Hemicarpurus fornicatus (Roth) Nees; Pinellia angustata Schott; P. koreana K. H. Tae & J. H. Kim; P. ternata var. angustata (Schott) Engler; P. ternata var. giraldiana Engler; P. ternata var. subpandurata Engler; P. ternata var. vulgaris Engler; P. tuberifera Tenore, nom. illeg. superfl.; Typhonium tuberculigerum Schott.
Tuber globose, 1-2 cm in diam. Leaves 2-5; petiole 15-20 cm, base sheathing; bulbils present in sheath, at proximal or middle part of petiole, and at base of leaf blade; leaf blade 3-foliolate, sometimes pedate with 5 leaflets; leaflets greenish abaxially, green adaxially, oblong-elliptic or lanceolate, base cuneate, apex acuminate; anterior leaflet 3-10 × 1-3 cm; lateral leaflets (3-)4-7.5 × 1.8-2.3 cm, with 7-9(or 10) primary lateral veins per side, forming a collective vein along margin. Inflorescence including peduncle longer than petioles, 25-35 cm; peduncle 15-25 cm. Spathe greenish or whitish green, rarely purplish, slightly constricted, 6-7 cm; tube narrowly cylindric, 1.5-2 cm; limb green and usually violet at margin, oblong, 4-5 × ca. 1.5 cm, apex obtuse or acute. Spadix 9-10 cm; female zone ca. 2 cm, adnate to spathe; female flowers densely arranged; pistil 2.1-2.2 mm; ovary ovoid, ca. 1.8 × 1-1.1 mm; style distinct, attenuate; stigma very small, ca. 0.2 mm in diam., not broader than style; sterile zone between female and male flowers ca. 3 mm; male zone 5-7 mm; thecae elongate, ca. 1.2 mm, opening by a slit; appendix erect or sigmoid, green to violet, 6-7(-8) cm. Berries yellowish green to whitish, ovoid, with persistent stigma and style, 1-seeded. Fl. May-Jul, fr. Jul-Sep. 2n = 28, 54, 72, 104, 115, 116, 128.
Grasslands, secondary forests, wastelands, cultivated lands; below 2500 m. Widely distributed in China, excluding Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Xinjiang, and Xizang [Japan (including Ryukyu Islands), Korea; naturalized in Europe and North America].
Pinellia ternata is a highly variable species in morphology and cytology. It differs from other Pinellia species by having bulbils at different parts of the petiole; bulbils on each petiole may be 1, 2, or 3. Fourteen sheets of specimens in the Herbarium of the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (E), have been studied and counted: six specimens have bulbils at the proximal part of the petiole; five specimens show bulbils at the median part; one specimen has three bulbils located at the proximal and median parts and at the distal part; another specimen has two bulbils at the distal and proximal parts (6 May 1975, N. Togash s.n. from Tokyo); and one has two bulbils found at the distal and the median parts. After examining the variability in position and number of bulbils, we suggest that "Pinellia zinguiensis" H. Li (nom. nud.), with bulbils at both the distal and proximal parts of the petiole, must be a synonym of P. ternata. For the same reason, Engler’s four variants (P. ternata var. angustata, P. ternata var. giraldiana, P. ternata var. subpandurata, and P. ternata var. vulgaris) may not represent any independent systematic taxa. Pinellia koreana was described from Korea as differing by its pedate leaf blades with five leaflets; but strong growing plants sometimes produce pedate leaf blades, and, therefore, this is only a further synonym of P. ternata. It was collected from Korea, Mt. Chiri, 480 m, 10 Jun 1999 (fl.), K.-H. Tae 99-001 (holotype, TUT).
The poisonous tubers are used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating coughs, reducing phlegm, stopping vomiting, and externally for treating mastitis and otitis media. The plant is also used ornamentally.
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