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猪毛草Schoenoplectus wallichii

时间:2013-11-11 12:49作者:徐晔春 点击: 次 标签: 莎草科 Cyperaceae 水葱属 Schoenoplect
  中文名(Chinese Name):猪毛草
学名(Scientific Name):Schoenoplectus wallichii (Nees) T. Koyama
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Scirpus wallichii Nees  Scirpus sasakii Hayata  Scirpus wallichi Nees  Scirpus erectus var. wallichii (Nees) Beetle  Schoenoplectiella wallichii (Nees) Lye
科属(Family & Genus):莎草科Cyperaceae水葱属Schoenoplectus
形态特征(Description):丛生,无根状茎。稈细弱,高10-40厘米,平滑,基部具2-3个鞘,鞘管状,近于膜质,长3-9厘米,上端开口处为斜截形,口部边缘干膜质,顶端钝圆或具短尖。叶缺如。苞片1枚,为稈的延长,直立,顶端急尖,长4.5-13厘米,基部稍扩大;小穗单生或2-3个成簇,假侧生,长圆状卵形,顶端急尖,长7-17毫米,宽3-6毫米,淡绿色或淡棕缘色,具10多朵至多数花;鳞片长圆状卵形,顶端渐尖,近于革质,长4-5.5毫米,背面较宽部分为绿色,具一条中脉延伸出顶端呈短尖,两侧淡棕色、淡棕绿色或近于白色半透明,具深棕色短条纹;下位刚毛4条,长于小坚果,上部生有倒刺;雄蕊3,花药长圆形,药隔稍突出;花柱中等长,柱头2。小坚果宽椭圆形,平凸状,长约2毫米,黑褐色,有不明显的皱纹,稍具光泽。花果期9-11月。
分布(Distribution):产于我国福建、江西、台湾、广东、广西、贵州、云南;多生长在稻田中,或溪边、河旁近水处,在云南生长在海拔1000米左右的地区。分布于朝鲜、日本及印度。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 23 Page 182, 187   
Schoenoplectus wallichii (Nees) T. Koyama, Fl. Taiwan. 5: 210. 1978.
猪毛草 zhu mao cao | Cyperaceae  | Schoenoplectus
Scirpus wallichii Nees in Wight, Contr. Bot. India, 112. 1834; Schoenoplectiella wallichii (Nees) Lye; Scirpus erectus Poiret var. wallichii (Nees) Beetle; S. sasakii Hayata.
Plants without a distinct rhizome. Culms tufted, 10-40 cm tall, smooth, clothed at base with 2-4 leaf sheaths. Leaf sheaths 2-10 cm, with basal ones straw-colored and apical ones pale green, mouth obliquely truncate and with a subulate ca. 0.8 mm appendage. Involucral bract 1, erect, culmlike, 4.5-16 cm, base dilated, apex acute. Inflorescence a pseudolateral head, with 1-3 spikelets. Spikelets pale green to pale brownish green, narrowly ovoid to oblong-ovoid, 7-20 × 3-6 mm, densely many flowered, apex acute. Glumes oblong-ovate, 4-5.5 × ca. 2.5 mm, thinly leathery, apex acuminate with a green costa excurrent into a mucro. Perianth bristles 4(or 5), longer than nutlet, retrorsely scabrous except at base. Stamens 3; anthers oblong; connective apex slightly evident beyond anthers. Style 2-2.5 mm; stigmas 2. Nutlet blackish brown, broadly ellipsoid, ca. 2.5 mm, plano-convex, ± transversely wrinkled, shiny. Fl. and fr. Aug-Nov.
Wet places, stream margins, river margins, paddy fields; 800-1300 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [NE India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Vietnam].
 




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