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羽毛荸荠Eleocharis wichurae

时间:2013-11-11 12:43作者:徐晔春 点击: 次 标签: 莎草科 Cyperaceae 荸荠属 Eleocharis
  中文名(Chinese Name):羽毛荸荠
学名(Scientific Name):Eleocharis wichurae Boeckeler
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Eleocharis liukiuensis Makino  Eleocharis wichurae f. teres (H.Hara) Ohwi  Eleocharis wichurae var. teres H.Hara  Eleocharis wichurae f. vivipara Ueno  Eleocharis hakonensis Franch. & Sav.
科属(Family & Genus):莎草科Cyperaceae荸荠属Eleocharis
形态特征(Description):一般无匍匐根状茎,但有时具短的匍匐根状茎。稈少数,丛生,高30-50厘米,锐四稜柱状,细弱,光滑,无毛,灰绿色,在稈的基部有1-2个叶鞘;鞘带红色或紫红色,顶端向一面深裂因而鞘口很斜。小穗卵形、长圆形或披针形,顶端急尖,稍斜生,长8-12毫米,直径3-5毫米,初近褐色。后期苍白色,有多数花。在小穗基部的2片鳞片中空无花,对生,最下的一片抱小穗基部几一周,其余鳞片紧密地螺旋状排列,全有花,长圆形或椭圆形,顶端钝圆,长3毫米,宽近2毫米,膜质,舟状,背部淡绿色,中脉一条细而不明显,两侧有带锈色条纹,边缘为宽干膜质;下位刚毛6条,或多或少与小坚果(连花柱基在内)等长,锈褐色,密生疏柔毛,毛白色,倒向或平展,软弱,羽毛状或近似鸡毛掸;柱头3。小坚果倒卵形或宽倒卵形,微扁,钝三稜形,腹面微凸,背面十分隆起,长(不连花柱基)1.3-1.5毫米,宽1-1.1毫米,淡橄榄色,后期淡褐色;花柱基异常膨大,圆锥形至长圆形,顶端急尖或钝,有时截形,扁,白色,密布乳头状突起,长为小坚果的3/5-2/3,宽为小坚果1/2-2/3(-4/5)。花果期7月。
分布(Distribution):产于甘肃、河北、山东、浙江、东北等省;生于水边草丛中,海拔1680米。此外,分布于朝鲜、苏联远东地区和日本。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 23 Page 189, 194
Eleocharis wichurae Boeckeler, Linnaea. 36: 448. 1870.
羽毛荸荠 yu mao bi qi | Cyperaceae  | Eleocharis
Eleocharis petasata (Maximowicz) G. Zinserling; Scirpus petasatus Maximowicz.
Perennials. Stolons short or absent. Culms grayish green, tufted, 30-60 cm tall, slender, sharply 4-angled, smooth. Leaf sheaths 1 or 2, reddish to purplish, mouth very obliquely truncate. Spikelet brownish at first but becoming pale green, ovoid, narrowly ovoid, or oblong, 8-15 × 3-5 mm, slightly oblique, many flowered, apex acute. Basal 2 glumes empty; basalmost glume amplexicaul for whole spikelet base; fertile glumes pale green medially and rust-colored striate on both sides, tightly spirally imbricate, oblong to elliptic and boat-shaped, 4-6 × 2-2.5 mm, membranous, midvein thin and obscure, margin broadly hyaline, apex obtuse-rounded. Perianth bristles 6, rust-colored, as long as nutlet (including style base), plumose with spreading hairs. Stigmas 3. Nutlet pale olivaceous, turning brownish when mature, shortly stipitate, obovoid to broadly obovoid, ca. 1.5 × 2 mm, obtusely 3-sided, slightly compressed, both surfaces smooth, apex not constricted; persistent style base very inflated, narrowly ovoid, as long and as wide as nutlet or nearly so, laterally compressed, densely mammillate, apex acute to obtuse. Fl. and fr. Jul-Sep.
Shallow water in valleys, grasslands by water, marshy areas; 900-1700 m. Anhui, SE Gansu, W Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning, NE Nei Mongol, S Shaanxi, Shandong, Zhejiang [Japan, Korea, Russia (Far East, Siberia)].
 
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