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商陆Phytolacca octandra

时间:2014-02-08 19:25作者:徐晔春 点击: 次 标签: 商陆科 商陆属 Phytolacca Phytolaccace
  中文名(Chinese Name):商陆
学名(Scientific Name):Phytolacca octandra L.
英文名(English Common Name):red inkplant
别名(Chinese Common Name):山萝卜
异名(Synonym):Phytolacca pekinensis Hance  Phytolacca esculenta Van Houtte
科属(Family & Genus):商陆科(Phytolaccaceae)商陆属
形态特征(Description):多年生草本,高0.5-1.5米,全株无毛。根肥大,肉质,倒圆锥形,外皮淡黄色或灰褐色,内面黄白色。茎直立,圆柱形,有纵沟,肉质,绿色或红紫色,多分枝。叶片薄纸质,椭圆形、长椭圆形或披针状椭圆形,长10-30厘米,宽4.5-15厘米,顶端急尖或渐尖,基部楔形,渐狭,两面散生细小白色斑点(针晶体),背面中脉凸起;叶柄长1.5-3厘米,粗壮,上面有槽,下面半圆形,基部稍扁宽。总状花序顶生或与叶对生,圆柱状,直立,通常比叶短,密生多花;花序梗长1-4厘米;花梗基部的苞片线形,长约1.5毫米,上部2枚小苞片线状披针形,均膜质;花梗细,长6-10 (-13) 毫米,基部变粗;花两性,直径约8毫米;花被片5,白色、黄绿色,椭圆形、卵形或长圆形,顶端圆钝,长3-4毫米,宽约2毫米,大小相等,花后常反折;雄蕊8-10,与花被片近等长,花丝白色,钻形,基部成片状,宿存,花药椭圆形,粉红色;心皮通常为8,有时少至5或多至10,分离;花柱短,直立,顶端下弯,柱头不明显。果序直立;浆果扁球形,直径约7毫米,熟时黑色;种子肾形,黑色,长约3毫米,具3棱。花期5-8月,果期6-10月。
分布(Distribution):我国除东北、内蒙古、青海、新疆外,普遍野生于海拔500-3 400米的沟谷、山坡林下、林缘路旁。朝鲜、日本及印度也有。
用途(Use):根入药,以白色肥大者为佳,红根有剧毒,仅供外用。通二便,逐水、散结,治水肿、胀满、脚气、喉痹,外敷治痈肿疮毒。也可作兽药及农药。果实含鞣质,可提制栲胶。嫩茎叶可供蔬食。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 5 Page 435     
Phytolacca acinosa Roxburgh, Fl. Ind., ed. 1832. 2: 458. 1832.
商陆 shang lu| Phytolaccaceae  | Phytolacca
Phytolacca esculenta Van Houtte; P. pekinensis Hance.
Herbs perennial, glabrous, 0.5-1.5 m tall. Roots obconic, thick, fleshy. Stems erect, green or reddish purple, terete, longitudinally grooved, fleshy, branched. Petiole 1.5-3 cm; leaf blade elliptic or lanceolate-elliptic, 10-30 × 4.5-15 cm, papery, base cuneate, apex acuminate or sharply pointed. Racemes erect, terete, usually shorter than leaves, densely flowered; peduncle 1-4 cm. Pedicel 6-10(-13) mm. Flowers bisexual, ca. 8 mm in diam. Tepals 5, white or yellowish green, elliptic, ovate, or oblong, 3-4 × ca. 2 mm, equal, after anthesis reflexed. Stamens 8-10, ca. as long as tepals; filaments persistent, white, subulate, base broad; anthers pink, elliptic. Carpels usually 8, distinct. Styles erect, short, apex curved. Infructescence erect. Berry purplish black when mature, oblate, ca. 7 mm in diam. Seeds reniform, ca. 3 mm, 3-angulate, smooth. Fl. May-Aug, fr. Jun-Oct. 2n = 18, 36*, 72.
Valleys, hillsides, forest understories, forest margins, roadsides, cultivated beside houses, moist fertile lands, or a weed; 500-3400 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Bhutan, India, Japan, Korea, Myanmar, Sikkim, Vietnam].
This species is used medicinally.








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