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黑籽荸荠Eleocharis geniculata

时间:2013-11-11 12:42作者:徐晔春 点击: 次 标签: 莎草科 Cyperaceae 荸荠属 Eleocharis
  中文名(Chinese Name):黑籽荸荠
学名(Scientific Name):Eleocharis geniculata (L.) Roem. & Schult.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Scirpus geniculata L.  Eleocharis caribaea (Rottb.) Blake  Bulbostylis capitata (L.) Steven  Bulbostylis geniculatus (L.) Steven  Chlorocharis capitata (L.) Rikli  Chlorocharis geniculata (L.) Rikli  Eleocharis melanosperma Steud.  Eleocharis microformis Buckley  Eleocharis brizantha Steud.  Eleocharis densisquamata Steud.  Eleocharis dispar E.J.Hill  Eleocharis riparia Nees ex Spreng.  Eleocharis singularis Steud.  Eleocharis sintenisii Boeckeler  Eleocharis valida Boeckeler  Limnochloa constricta (Schrad. ex Kunth) Nees  Limnochloa densa Liebm.  Megadenus capitatus (L.) Raf.  Scirpus atrofactus Steud.  Scirpus brownii Spreng.  Scirpus depressus Vell.  Scirpus geniculatus L.  Scirpus repens Willd. ex Schult.  Trichophyllum capitatum (L.) House  Eleocharis geniculata f. brunnea S.González & Reznicek  Eleocharis caribaea var. achlamydea Zavaro & Pabón  Eleocharis caribaea var. dispar (E.J.Hill) S.F.Blake  Eleocharis capitata var. dispar (E.J.Hill) Fernald  Eleocharis capitata var. typica Svenson  Eleocharis geniculata var. minor (Vahl) Roem. & Schult.  Eleogenus capitatus var. major Nees  Eleogenus capitatus var. minor Nees  Scirpus geniculatus var. minor Vahl  Eleogenus capitatus var. recurvus Nees  Eleogenus capitatus var. intermedius Nees
科属(Family & Genus):莎草科Cyperaceae荸荠属Eleocharis
形态特征(Description):一年生草本,无匍匐根状茎。稈多数或极多数,丛生或密丛生,短,瘦,软弱,有少数肋条和纵槽,直或弯,无疣状突起,高3-20厘米或更高,直径0.5毫米。叶缺如,只在稈的基部有二个叶鞘,长鞘麦稈黄色,基部微红色,鞘口斜,顶端渐尖,高1-1.5厘米。小穗球形或卵形,顶端很钝,长3-5毫米,直径3-3.5毫米,淡锈色,密生多数花;在小穗基部只有3-4片鳞片中空无花,其最下二片对生,各抱小穗基部半周;其余鳞片全有花,形状一致,宽椭圆形,顶端圆,长1.6-2毫米,宽1-1.2毫米,淡锈色,后期色更淡,中脉不明显,边缘很狭;下位刚毛6-8条,稍短于小坚果,锈色,不向外展开,有倒刺,刺稀而短;柱头2。小坚果宽倒卵形或圆卵形,双凸状,长1毫米,宽0.6毫米,黑色而微紫,有光泽,小,平滑;花柱基小,近于短圆锥形,基部两侧微向上反转,长为小坚果1/5-1/4,宽为小坚果的1/7-1/4,苍白色。花果期1-4月。
分布(Distribution):产于台湾、福建、广东、海南;生于路旁水边。分布于印度、缅甸、泰国、印度支那、日本琉球羣岛、马来亚和印度尼西亚。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 23 Page 190, 196
Eleocharis geniculata (Linnaeus) Roemer & Schultes, Syst. Veg. 2: 150. 1817.
黑籽荸荠 hei zi bi qi| Cyperaceae  | Eleocharis
Scirpus geniculatus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 48. 1753; Eleocharis capitata R. Brown; E. caribaea (Rottbøll) S. F. Blake; S. caribaeus Rottbøll.
Annuals. Rhizomes and stolons absent. Culms tufted to densely tufted, 3-45 cm tall, ca. 0.5 mm thick, soft, with a few longitudinal ribs and sulcate. Leaf sheaths 2, basally reddish and apically straw-colored, 1-1.5 cm, mouth obliquely truncate, apex acuminate. Spikelet globose to ovoid, 3-5 × 3-3.5 mm, densely many flowered, apex obtuse. Basal 3 or 4 glumes empty; basal 2 glumes opposite, amplexicaul for ca. 1/2 of spikelet base; fertile glumes pale rust-colored becoming ± pale, broadly elliptic, 1.6-2 × 1-1.2 mm, midvein obscure, margin narrowly hyaline, apex rounded. Perianth bristles 6-8, rust-colored, slightly shorter than nutlet, laxly and shortly retrorsely spinulose. Stigmas 2. Nutlet dark purple, broadly obovoid to globose-ovoid, 0.7-1.1 × ca. 0.6 mm, biconvex, smooth and shiny; persistent style base pale, depressed conic, 1/5-1/4 as long and 1/7-1/4 as wide as nutlet, slightly reflexed basally on both sides. Fl. and fr. Jan-Apr. 2n = 30.
Shallow water margins at trail edges, sandy coastal habitats; near sea level. Fujian, Guangdong, Hainan, Taiwan [Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Japan (Ryukyu Islands), Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand; Africa, SW Asia, Australia, Central, North, and South America, S Europe, Madagascar, Pacific islands].
 


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