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曼陀罗Datura stramonium

时间:2013-11-09 16:25来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 曼陀罗 学名( Scientific Name ): Datura stramonium L. 英文名( English Common Name ): jimsonweed 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 枫茄花 异名( Synonym ): Datura tatula L. Datura inermis Jacq. Datura microca
中文名(Chinese Name):曼陀罗
学名(Scientific Name):Datura stramonium L.
英文名(English Common Name):jimsonweed
别名(Chinese Common Name):枫茄花
异名(Synonym):Datura tatula L.  Datura inermis Jacq.  Datura microcarpa Godr.  Datura parviflora Salisb.  Datura praecox Godr.  Datura pseudostramonium Sieber ex Bernh.  Datura stramonium f. godronii (Danert) Geerinck & Walravens  Datura stramonium f. inermis (Juss. ex Jacq.) Hupke  Datura stramonium f. tatula (L.) B.Boivin  Datura stramonium var. canescens Roxb.  Datura stramonium var. chalybaea W.D.J.Koch  Datura stramonium var. gordonii Danert  Datura stramonium var. inermis (Juss. ex Jacq.) Fernald  Datura wallichii Dunal  Datura bernhardii Lundstr.  Datura bertolonii Parl. ex Guss.  Datura cabanesii P.Fourn.  Datura capensis Bernh.  Datura ferocissima Cabanès & P.Fourn.  Datura hybrida Ten.  Datura loricata Sieber ex Bernh.  Datura lurida Salisb.  Stramonium foetidum Scop.  Stramonium laeve Moench  Stramonium spinosum Lam.  Stramonium tatula Moench  Stramonium vulgatum Gaertn.
科属Family & Genus):茄科(Solanaceae)曼陀罗属
形态特征Description):草本或半灌木状,高0.5-1.5米,全体近于平滑或在幼嫩部分被短柔毛。茎粗壮,圆柱状,淡绿色或带紫色,下部木质化。叶广卵形,顶端渐尖,基部不对称楔形,边缘有不规则波状浅裂,裂片顶端急尖,有时亦有波状牙齿,侧脉每边3-5条,直达裂片顶端,长8-17厘米,宽4-12厘米;叶柄长3-5厘米。花单生于枝叉间或叶腋,直立,有短梗;花萼筒状,长4-5厘米,筒部有5棱角,两棱间稍向内陷,基部稍膨大,顶端紧围花冠筒,5浅裂,裂片三角形,花后自近基部断裂,宿存部分随果实而增大并向外反折;花冠漏斗状,下半部带绿色,上部白色或淡紫色,檐部5浅裂,裂片有短尖头,长6-10厘米,檐部直径3-5厘米;雄蕊不伸出花冠,花丝长约3厘米,花药长约4毫米;子房密生柔针毛,花柱长约6厘米。蒴果直立生,卵状,长3-4.5厘米,直径2-4厘米,表面生有坚硬针刺或有时无刺而近平滑,成熟后淡黄色,规则4瓣裂。种子卵圆形,稍扁,长约4毫米,黑色。花期6-10月,果期7-11月。
分布(Distribution):广布于世界各大洲,我国各省区都有分布。常生于住宅旁、路边或草地上,也有作药用或观赏而栽培。
用途(Use):全株有毒!含莨菪碱,药用,有镇痉、镇静、镇痛、麻醉的功能。种子油可制肥皂和掺合油漆用。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 17 Page 330   
Datura stramonium Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 179. 1753.
曼陀罗 man tuo luo| Solanaceae  | Datura
Datura stramonium var. tatula (Linnaeus) Torrey; D. tatula Linnaeus.
Herbs or subshrubs, sometimes robust, 0.5-1.5 m tall, glabrescent. Petiole 3-5.5 cm; leaf blade broadly ovate, 8-17 × 4-14 cm, membranous, glabrescent, base asymmetric, cuneate, irregularly sinuous or dentate-lobed, apex acuminate, veins 3-5 pairs. Flowers erect. Pedicel 5-12 mm. Calyx tubular, 5-angular, 3-5 cm. Corolla white or pale purple, greenish at base, sometimes purple distally, funnelform; limb 3-5 cm in diam.; lobes 6-10 cm, mucronate at apex. Filaments ca. 3 cm; anthers 3-4 mm. Capsules erect, globose or ovoid, 3-4.5 × 2-4 cm, with copious prickles, rarely smooth, dehiscent by 4 equal valves, subtended by remnants of persistent calyx. Seeds black, ovate or discoid, ca. 4 mm in diam. Fl. Jun-Oct, fr. Jul-Nov.
Near houses, roadsides, grasslands; 600-1600 m. Throughout China [native of Mexico, now worldwide]
Cultivated in gardens as a medicinal and decorative plant.
The whole plant is toxic and is used medicinally as anaesthetic and for sedating and relieving muscular spasm. Seed oil can be used for soap making.






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