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毛曼陀罗Datura inoxia

时间:2013-11-09 16:23来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 毛曼陀罗 学名( Scientific Name ): Datura inoxia Mill. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 异名( Synonym ): Datura innoxia Miller Datura guayaquilensis Kunth Brugmansia meteloid
中文名(Chinese Name):毛曼陀罗
学名(Scientific Name):Datura inoxia Mill.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Datura innoxia Miller  Datura guayaquilensis Kunth  Brugmansia meteloides
科属(Family & Genus):茄科(Solanaceae)曼陀罗属
形态特征(Description):一年生直立草本或半灌木状,高1-2米,全体密被细腺毛和短柔毛。茎粗壮,下部灰白色,分枝灰绿色或微带紫色。叶片广卵形,长10-18厘米,宽4-15厘米,顶端急尖,基部不对称近圆形,全缘而微波状或有不规则的疏齿,侧脉每边7-10条。花单生于枝叉间或叶腋,直立或斜升;花梗长1-2厘米,初直立,花萎谢后渐转向下弓曲。花萼圆筒状而不具棱角,长8-10厘米,直径2-3厘米,向下渐稍膨大,5裂,裂片狭三角形,有时不等大,长1-2厘米,花后宿存部分随果实增大而渐大呈五角形,果时向外反折;花冠长漏斗状,长15-20厘米,檐部直径7-10厘米,下半部带淡绿色,上部白色,花开放后呈喇叭状,边缘有10尖头;花丝长约5.5厘米,花药长1-1.5厘米;子房密生白色柔针毛,花柱长13-17厘米。蒴果俯垂,近球状或卵球状,直径3-4厘米,密生细针刺,针刺有韧曲性,全果亦密生白色柔毛,成熟后淡褐色,由近顶端不规则开裂。种子扁肾形,褐色,长约5毫米,宽3毫米。花果期6-9月。
分布(Distribution):广布欧亚大陆及南北美洲;我国大连、北京、上海、南京等许多城市有栽培,新疆阿尔泰地区、河北、山东、河南、湖北、江苏等省区有野生。常生于村边、路旁。
用途(Use):叶和花含莨菪碱和东莨菪碱,全株有毒!含莨菪碱,药用,有镇痉、镇静、镇痛、麻醉的功能。种子油可制肥皂和掺合油漆用。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 17 Page 330
Datura inoxia Miller, Gard. Dict., ed. 8. no. 5. 1768.
毛曼陀罗 mao man tuo luo | Solanaceae  | Datura
Herbs erect, 1-2 m tall, densely pubescent and glandular. Petiole 3-5 cm; leaf blade broadly ovate, 10-18 × 4-15 cm, membranous or felty, minutely tomentose, base rounded or obtuse, asymmetric, margin subentire, sinuate, or irregularly dentate, apex acute; veins 7-10 pairs. Flowers erect. Pedicel 1-5 cm. Calyx cylindric, 8-10 × 2-3 cm; lobes narrowly deltate, 1-2 cm, sometimes unequal. Corolla greenish proximally, white at apex, 15-18 cm; limb 7-10 cm in diam.; lobes mucronate at apex. Filaments ca. 5.5 cm; anthers 1-1.7 cm. Capsules deflexed, globose or ovoid, 3-4 cm in diam., densely armed with slender, subequal prickles, pubescent with white hairs, irregularly dehiscent at apex, subtended by remnants of persistent calyx. Seeds numerous, brown, discoid-reniform, 3-5 mm in diam. Fl. and fr. Jun-Sep.
Near villages, roadsides, also cultivated; 300-600 m. Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Shandong, Xinjiang [native to the Americas]
The leaves and flowers are used medicinally as in Datura stramonium.
 


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