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波斯菊Cosmos bipinnatus

时间:2014-01-29 20:46作者:徐晔春 点击: 次 标签: Compositatus 菊科 秋英属 Cosmos
  







中文名(Chinese Name):波斯菊
学名(Scientific Name):Cosmos bipinnatus Cav.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):秋英、大波斯菊
异名(Synonym):Cosmos bipinnata Cav.  Cosmos formosa Bonato  Bidens lindleyi Sch.Bip.  Georgia bipinnata (Cav.) Spreng.  Cosmos bipinnatus var. albiflorus Sprenger  Cosmos bipinnatus var. exaristatus DC.
科属(Family & Genus):菊科(Compositae)秋英属
形态特征(Description):一年生或多年生草本,高1-2米。根纺锤状,多须根,或近茎基部有不定根。茎无毛或稍被柔毛。叶二次羽状深裂,裂片线形或丝状线形。头状花序单生,径3-6厘米;花序梗长6-18厘米。总苞片外层披针形或线状披针形,近革质,淡绿色,具深紫色条纹,上端长狭尖,较内层与内层等长,长10-15毫米,内层椭圆状卵形,膜质。托片平展,上端成丝状,与瘦果近等长。舌状花紫红色,粉红色或白色;舌片椭圆状倒卵形,长2-3厘米,宽1.2-1.8厘米,有3-5钝齿;管状花黄色,长6-8毫米,管部短,上部圆柱形,有披针状裂片;花柱具短突尖的附器。瘦果黑紫色,长8-12毫米,无毛,上端具长喙,有2-3尖刺。花期6-8月,果期9-10月。
分布(Distribution):产美洲墨西哥,在我国部分地区已逸生。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 20-21 Page 856
Cosmos bipinnatus Cavanilles, Icon. 1: 10. 1791.
秋英 qiu ying | Asteraceae  | Cosmos
Plants 30-200 cm tall, glabrous or sparsely puberulent, sometimes scabridulous. Leaves sessile or with petioles up to 1 cm; blade 6-11 cm, ultimate lobes to 1.5 mm wide, margin entire, apex acute. Capitula solitary, 3-6 cm in diam.; peduncles 10-20 cm; calycular bracts spreading, linear to lanceolate, 6-13 mm, apices acuminate; involucre 7-15 mm in diam.; phyllaries erect, lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, 7-13 mm, apices rounded or obtuse. Ray corollas white, pink, or purplish, lamina obovate to oblanceolate, 15-50 mm, apices ± truncate, dentate. Disk corollas 5-7 mm. Achenes 7-16 mm, glabrous, papillose; pappus absent, or of 2 or 3 ascending to erect awns 1-3 mm. Fl. Jun-Aug. 2n = 24.
Widely introduced in China [native to Mexico and SW United States].
A favorite garden plant, this species has escaped and naturalized widely in warm climates almost worldwide.
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