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黄芩Scutellaria baicalensis

时间:2013-09-25 12:00来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):黄芩 学名( Scientific Name ): Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 香水水草 异名( Synonym ): Scutellaria lanceolaria Miq. Scutellaria macrantha Fis
中文名(Chinese Name):黄芩
学名(Scientific Name):Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):香水水草
异名(Synonym):Scutellaria lanceolaria Miq.  Scutellaria macrantha Fisch.  Scutellaria baicalensis f. albiflora H.W.Jen & Y.J.Chang  Scutellaria davurica Pall. ex Ledeb.
科属Family & Genus):唇形科(Labiatae)黄芩属
形态特征Description):多年生草本;根茎肥厚,肉质,径达2厘米,伸长而分枝。茎基部伏地,上升,高(15)30-120厘米,基部径2.5-3毫米,钝四棱形,具细条纹,近无毛或被上曲至开展的微柔毛,绿色或带紫色,自基部多分枝。叶坚纸质,披针形至线状披针形,长1.5-4.5厘米,宽(0.3)0.5-1.2厘米,顶端钝,基部圆形,全缘,上面暗绿色,无毛或疏被贴生至开展的微柔毛,下面色较淡,无毛或沿中脉疏被微柔毛,密被下陷的腺点,侧脉4对,与中脉上面下陷下面凸出;叶柄短,长2毫米,腹凹背凸,被微柔毛。花序在茎及枝上顶生,总状,长7-15厘米,常再于茎顶聚成圆锥花序;花梗长3毫米,与序轴均被微柔毛;苞片下部者似叶,上部者远较小,卵圆状披针形至披针形,长4-11毫米,近于无毛。花萼开花时长4毫米,盾片高1.5毫米,外面密被微柔毛,萼缘被疏柔毛,内面无毛,果时花萼长5毫米,有高4毫米的盾片。花冠紫、紫红至蓝色,长2.3-3厘米,外面密被具腺短柔毛,内面在囊状膨大处被短柔毛;冠筒近基部明显膝曲,中部径1.5毫米,至喉部宽达6毫米;冠檐2唇形,上唇盔状,先端微缺,下唇中裂片三角状卵圆形,宽7.5毫米,两侧裂片向上唇靠合。雄蕊4,稍露出,前对较长,具半药,退化半药不明显,后对较短,具全药,药室裂口具白色髯毛,背部具泡状毛;花丝扁平,中部以下前对在内侧后对在两侧被小疏柔毛。花柱细长,先端锐尖,微裂。花盘环状,高0.75毫米,前方稍增大,后方延伸成极短子房柄。子房褐色,无毛。小坚果卵球形,高1.5毫米,径1毫米,黑褐色,具瘤,腹面近基部具果脐。花期7-8月,果期8-9月。
分布(Distribution):产黑龙江、辽宁、内蒙古、河北、河南、甘肃、陕西、山西、山东、四川等地,生于海拔60-2000米向阳草坡地、休荒地上。俄罗斯、蒙古、朝鲜、日本均有。
用途(Use):根茎为清凉性解热消炎药。
引自植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 17 Page 92
Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, Bemerk. Reise Russ. Reich. 1: 223. 1775.
黄芩 huang qin | Lamiaceae  | Scutellaria
Scutellaria lanceolaria Miquel; S. macrantha Fischer.
Herbs perennial. Rhizomes fleshy, to 2 cm in diam., branched. Stems ascending, (15-)30-120 cm tall, much branched, subglabrous or antrorsely to spreading puberulent. Petiole ca. 2 mm, puberulent; leaf blade lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 1.5-4.5 × (0.3-)0.5-1.2 cm, papery, glab-rous or sparsely puberulent, abaxially densely impressed glandular, base rounded, margin entire, apex obtuse. Racemes terminal, 7-15 cm; basal bracts similar to stem leaves, upper ones ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, 4-11 mm, subglabrous. Pedicel ca. 3 mm, puberulent. Calyx ca. 4 mm, ca. 5 mm in fruit, densely puberulent outside, margin ciliate, glabrous inside; scutellum ca. 1.5 mm, ca. 4 mm in fruit. Corolla purple-red to blue, 2.3-3 cm, densely glandular pubescent outside, pubescent on saccate part inside; tube conspicuously bent near base, throat to 6 mm wide; middle lobe of lower lip triangular-ovate, ca. 7.5 mm wide. Nutlets black-brown, ovoid, ca. 1.5 × 1 mm, tuberculate, adaxially umbonate near base. Fl. Jul-Aug, fr. Aug-Sep.
Sunny grassy slopes, waste and cultivated areas; 100-2000 m. Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi [Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Russia]
Traditionally used as a febrifuge, for relieving fever, and diminishing inflammation. This is one of the most commonly collected species in China.



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