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水苏Stachys japonica

时间:2013-09-25 12:01来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):水苏 学名( Scientific Name ): Stachys japonica Miq. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 白马蓝、宽叶水苏 异名( Synonym ): Stachys baicalensis var. japonica Kom. Stachys japonica
中文名(Chinese Name):水苏
学名(Scientific Name):Stachys japonica Miq.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):白马蓝、宽叶水苏
异名(Synonym):Stachys baicalensis var. japonica Kom.  Stachys japonica f. glabrata Matsum. et Kudo  Stachys aspera var. chinensis f. glabrata Nakai  Stachys riederi var. japonica (Miq.) H. Hara  Stachys aspera var. japonica (Miq.) Maxim.
科属(Family & Genus):唇形科(Labiatae)水苏属
形态特征(Description):多年生草本,高20-80厘米,有在节上生须根的根茎。茎单一,直立,基部多少匍匐,四棱形,具槽,在稜及节上被小刚毛,余部无毛。茎叶长圆状宽披针形,长5-10厘米,宽1-2.3厘米,先端微急尖,基部圆形至微心形,边缘为圆齿状锯齿,上面绿色,下面灰绿色,两面均无毛,叶柄明显,长3-17毫米,近茎基部者最长,向上渐变短;苞叶披针形,无柄,近于全缘,向上渐变小,最下部者超出轮伞花序,上部者等于或短于轮伞花序。轮伞花序6-8花,下部者远离,上部者密集组成长5-13厘米的穗状花序;小苞片刺状,微小,长约1毫米,无毛;花梗短,长约1毫米,疏被微柔毛。花萼钟形,连齿长达7.5毫米,外被具腺微柔毛,肋上杂有疏柔毛,稀毛贴生或近于无毛,内面在齿上疏被微柔毛,余部无毛,10脉,不明显,齿5,等大,三角状披针形,先端具刺尖头,边缘具缘毛。花冠粉红或淡红紫色,长约1.2厘米,冠筒长约6毫米,几不超出于萼,外面无毛,内面在近基部1/3处有微柔毛毛环及在下唇下方喉部有鳞片状微柔毛,前面紧接在毛环上方呈囊状膨大,冠檐二唇形,上唇直立,倒卵圆形,长4毫米,宽2.5毫米,外面被微柔毛,内面无毛,下唇开张,长7毫米,宽6毫米,外面疏被微柔毛,内面无毛,3裂,中裂片最大,近圆形,先端微缺,侧裂片卵圆形。雄蕊4,均延伸至上唇片之下,花丝丝状,先端略增大,被微柔毛,花药卵圆形,2室,室极叉开。花柱丝状,稍超出雄蕊,先端相等2浅裂。花盘平顶。子房黑褐色,无毛。小坚果卵珠状,棕褐色,无毛。花期5-7月,果期7月以后。
分布(Distribution):产辽宁、内蒙古、河北、河南、山东、江苏、浙江、安徽、江西、福建;生于海拔在230米以下水沟、河岸等湿地上。俄罗斯、日本也有。
用途(Use):民间用全草或根入药,治百日咳、扁桃体炎、咽喉炎、痢疾等症,根又治带状疮疹。
引自植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 17 Page 181
Stachys japonica Miquel, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi. 2: 111. 1865.
水苏 shui su | Lamiaceae  | Stachys
Stachys aspera Michaux var. chinensis (Bunge ex Bentham) Maximowicz f. glabrata Nakai; S. aspera var. japonica (Miquel) Maximowicz; S. baicalensis Fischer ex Bentham var. japonica V. Komarov; S. japonica f. glabrata Matsumura & Kudo; S. riederi Chamisso var. japonica (Miquel) H. Hara.
Herbs perennial, rhizomatous. Stems unbranched, ascending, 20-80 cm, glabrous, angles and nodes minutely hispid. Petiole conspicuous, 0.3-1.7 cm; leaf blade broadly oblong-lanceolate, 5-10 × 1-2.3 cm, glabrous, abaxially gray-green, base rounded to shallowly cordate, margin crenate-serrate, apex acute. Spikes 5-13 cm; verticillasters 6-8-flowered, lower widely spaced; floral leaves sessile, lanceolate, margin subentire, lower ones longer than verticillasters, upper shorter; bracteoles spiny, ca. 1 mm, glabrous. Pedicel ca. 1 mm. Calyx campanulate, to 7.5 mm, glandular puberulent, veins pilose, rarely appressed-puberulent or subglabrous, obscurely 10-veined; teeth equal, triangular-lanceolate, spinescent, ciliate, sparsely puberulent inside. Corolla reddish or reddish purple, ca. 1.2 cm; tube ca. 6 mm, ± included, saccate, glabrous, throat scaly-puberulent below lower lip; limb puberulent outside, glabrous inside; upper lip straight, obovate, ca. 4 × 2.5 mm; lower lip spreading, ca. 7 × 6 mm; middle lobe subcircular, emarginate; lateral lobes ovate. Filaments slightly dilated at apex, puberulent. Style slightly longer than stamens. Nutlets brown, ovoid, glabrous. Fl. May-Jul, fr. Aug-Sep.
Wet areas in ravines, riverbanks; 0-2300 m. Anhui, Fujian, Hebei, Henan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shandong, Zhejiang [Japan, Russia].
Used medicinally for tonsillitis, sore throat, and dysentery.





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