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五月艾Artemisia indica

时间:2013-07-23 07:27来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):五月艾 学名( Scientific Name ): Artemisia indica Willd. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 野艾蒿 异名( Synonym ): Artemisia dubia var. multiflora (Bess.) Pamp. Artemisia dubia





中文名(Chinese Name):五月艾
学名(Scientific Name):Artemisia indica Willd.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):野艾蒿
异名(Synonym):Artemisia dubia var. multiflora (Bess.) Pamp.  Artemisia dubia var. orientalis Pamp.  Artemisia dubia var. septentrionalis Pamp.  Artemisia longiflora Pamp.  Artemisia dubia var. compacta Pamp.  Artemisia dubia var. gracilis Pamp.  Artemisia leptostachya D. Don  Artemisia princeps var. orientalis (Pamp.) Hara  Artemisia pleiocephala var. grandis Pamp.  Artemisia dubia var. acuminata Pamp.  Artemisia dubia f. pseudo-lavandulifolia Pamp.  Artemisia dubia f. communis Pamp.  Artemisia dubia f. grata (Wall. ex Bess.) Pamp.  Artemisia nilagirica f. lobata Pamp.  Artemisia flodmanii Rydb.  Artemisia heribaudii (Sennen) Sennen  Artemisia virens Moench  Artemisia rubriflora Turcz. ex Besser  Artemisia eriophora Ledeb.  Artemisia heyneana Wall.  Artemisia quadripedalis Gilib.  Artemisia leptophylla D.Don  Artemisia ruderalis Salisb.  Artemisia apetala hort.pest. ex Steud.  Artemisia paniculiformis DC.  Artemisia indica var. orientalis (Pamp.) H.Hara  Artemisia discolor var. glandulifera L.F.Hend.  Artemisia vulgaris subsp. flodmanii (Rydb.) H.M.Hall & Clem.  Artemisia vulgaris subsp. urjanchaica Ameljcz.  Artemisia vulgaris var. flodmanii (Rydb.) M.Peck  Artemisia vulgaris var. glandulifera (L.F.Hend.) M.Peck  Artemisia wallichiana f. nitida (Pamp.) B.D.Naithani
科属(Family & Genus):菊科(Compositae)蒿属
形态特征(Description):半灌木状草本,植株具浓烈的香气。主根明显,侧根多;根状茎稍粗短,直立或斜向上,直径3-7毫米,常有短匍茎。茎单生或少数,高80-150厘米,褐色或上部微带红色,纵棱明显,分枝多,开展或稍开展,枝长10-25厘米;茎、枝初时微有短柔毛,后脱落。叶上面初时被灰白色或淡灰黄色绒毛,后渐稀疏或无毛,背面密被灰白色蛛丝状绒毛;基生叶与茎下部叶卵形或长卵形,(一至)二回羽状分裂或近于大头羽状深裂,通常第一回全裂或深裂,每侧裂片3-4枚,裂片椭圆形,上半部裂片大,基部裂片渐小,第二回为深或浅裂齿或为粗锯齿,或基生叶不分裂,有时中轴有狭翅,具短叶柄,花期叶均萎谢;中部叶卵形、长卵形或椭圆形,长5-8厘米,宽3-5 厘米,一(至二)回羽状全裂或为大头羽状深裂,每侧裂片3(-4)枚,裂片椭圆状披针形、线状披针形或线形,长1-2厘米,宽3-5毫米,不再分裂或有1-2枚深或浅裂齿,边不反卷或微反卷,近无柄,具小型假托叶;上部叶羽状全裂,每侧裂片2(-3)枚;苞片叶3全裂或不分裂,裂片或不分裂的苞片叶披针形或线状披针形。头状花序卵形、长卵形或宽卵形,多数,直径2-2.5毫米,具短梗及小苞叶,直立,花后斜展或下垂,在分枝上排成穗状花序式的总状花序或复总状花序,而在茎上再组成开展或中等开展的圆锥花序;总苞片3-4层,外层总苞片略小,背面初时微被灰白色绒毛,后渐脱落无毛,有绿色中肋,边缘膜质,中、内层总苞片椭圆形或长卵形,背面近无毛,边宽膜质或全为半膜质;花序托小,凸起;雌花4-8朵,花冠狭管状,檐部紫红色,具2-3裂齿,外面具小腺点,花柱伸出花冠外,先端2叉,叉端尖;两性花8-12朵,花冠管状,外面具小腺点,檐部紫色;花药线形,先端附属物尖,长三角形,基部圆钝,花柱略比花冠长,先端2叉,花后反卷,叉端扁,扇形,并有睫毛。瘦果长圆形或倒卵形。花果期8-10月。
分布(Distribution):产我国大部分地区,多见于路边、林缘、坡地及灌丛处。日本、朝鲜及东南亚也有。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 20-21 Page 697, 703
Artemisia indica Willdenow, Sp. Pl. 3: 1846. 1803.
五月艾 wu yue ai | Asteraceae  | Artemisia
Herbs, perennial, or subshrubs, 80-150 cm tall, much branched, sparsely puberulent or glabrescent. Leaves shortly petiolate or ± sessile; leaf blade abaxially densely gray arachnoid tomentose, adaxially gray or yellowish tomentose or glabrescent. Lowermost leaves ovate or oblong-ovate, 6-12 × 3-8 cm, (1 or)2-pinnatipartite; distal lobes larger; segments 3 or 4 pairs, winged at midvein. Middle stem leaves ovate, oblong-ovate, or elliptic, 5-8 × 3-5 cm, (1 or)2-pinnatipartite; segments 3(or 4) pairs; distal lobe larger; lobes elliptic-lanceolate, linear-lanceolate, or linear, 10-20 × 3-5 mm; lobules deeply serrate, acute or acuminate apically. Uppermost leaves pinnatipartite; leaflike bracts 3-lobed or entire. Capitula sessile or inconspicuously pedunculate, ± erect, remote in broadly conical, almost leafless panicle with obliquely spreading, up to 18 cm long branches. Involucre ovoid, oblong-ovoid, or broadly ovoid, 3-4 × ca. 2 mm; phyllaries puberulent to glabrous. Florets 15-20, yellowish, all fertile. Marginal female florets 4-10; corolla tubular, ± glandular, 2-toothed. Disk florets 8-12, bisexual, basally glandular. Achenes brown, oblong or obovoid, ca. 1.25 mm. Fl. and fr. Aug-Oct.
Roadsides, forest margins, slopes, shrublands; low elevations to 2000 m. Anhui, Fujian, S Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, S Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, SE Nei Mongol, S Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, SE Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Myanmar, Philippines, N Thailand, Vietnam; North and Central America, Oceania]. (责任编辑:徐晔春)
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