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艾Artemisia argyi

时间:2013-07-23 07:26来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):艾 学名( Scientific Name ): Artemisia argyi Lvl. et Van. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 艾蒿、野艾 异名( Synonym ): Artemisia handel-mazzettii Pamp. Artemisia vulgaris var.




中文名(Chinese Name):艾
学名(Scientific Name): Artemisia argyi Lévl. et Van.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):艾蒿、野艾
异名(Synonym):Artemisia handel-mazzettii Pamp.  Artemisia vulgaris var. kamschatica Bess.  Artemisia vulgaris var. incanescens Franch.  Artemisia argyi f. genuina Pamp.  Artemisia argyi f. microcephala Pamp.  Artemisia leucophylla f. genuina Pamp.  Artemisia leucophylla var. typica Pamp.  Artemisia leucophylla var. pusilla Pamp.  Artemisia vulgaris var. incana Maxim.  Artemisia leucophylla f. simplicifolia Pamp.  Artemisia leucophylla f. minuta Pamp.  Artemisia argyi f. gracilis (Pamp.) Kitag.
科属Family & Genus):菊科(Compositae)蒿属
形态特征Description):多年生草本或略成半灌木状,植株有浓烈香气。主根明显,略粗长,直径达1.5厘米,侧根多;常有横卧地下根状茎及营养枝。茎单生或少数,高80-150(-250)厘米,有明显纵棱,褐色或灰黄褐色,基部稍木质化,上部草质,并有少数短的分枝,枝长3-5厘米;茎、枝均被灰色蛛丝状柔毛。叶厚纸质,上面被灰白色短柔毛,并有白色腺点与小凹点,背面密被灰白色蛛丝状密绒毛;基生叶具长柄,花期萎谢;茎下部叶近圆形或宽卵形,羽状深裂,每侧具裂片2-3枚,裂片椭圆形或倒卵状长椭圆形,每裂片有2-3枚小裂齿,干后背面主、侧脉多为深褐色或锈色,叶柄长0.5-0.8厘米;中部叶卵形、三角状卵形或近菱形,长5-8厘米,宽4-7厘米,一(至二)回羽状深裂至半裂,每侧裂片2-3枚,裂片卵形、卵状披针形或披针形,长2.5-5厘米,宽1.5-2厘米,不再分裂或每侧有1-2枚缺齿,叶基部宽楔形渐狭成短柄,叶脉明显,在背面凸起,干时锈色,叶柄长0.2-0.5厘米,基部通常无假托叶或极小的假托叶;上部叶与苞片叶羽状半裂、浅裂或3深裂或3浅裂,或不分裂,而为椭圆形、长椭圆状披针形、披针形或线状披针形。头状花序椭圆形,直径2.5-3(-3.5)毫米,无梗或近无梗,每数枚至10余枚在分枝上排成小型的穗状花序或复穗状花序,并在茎上通常再组成狭窄、尖塔形的圆锥花序,花后头状花序下倾;总苞片3-4层,覆瓦状排列,外层总苞片小,草质,卵形或狭卵形,背面密被灰白色蛛丝状绵毛,边缘膜质,中层总苞片较外层长,长卵形,背面被蛛丝状绵毛,内层总苞片质薄,背面近无毛;花序托小;雌花6-10朵,花冠狭管状,檐部具2裂齿,紫色,花柱细长,伸出花冠外甚长,先端2叉;两性花8-12朵,花冠管状或高脚杯状,外面有腺点,檐部紫色,花药狭线形,先端附属物尖,长三角形,基部有不明显的小尖头,花柱与花冠近等长或略长于花冠,先端2叉,花后向外弯曲,叉端截形,并有睫毛。瘦果长卵形或长圆形。花果期7-10月。
分布(Distribution):几分布于全国,生于低海拔至中海拔地区的路边、荒地及山坡等地。蒙古、俄罗斯及朝鲜也有。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 20-21 Page 694, 697, 698
Artemisia argyi H. Léveillé & Vaniot, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 8: 138. 1910.
艾 ai | Asteraceae  | Artemisia
Artemisia argyi var. incana (Maximowicz) Pampanini; A. chiarugii Pampanini; A. handel-mazzetii Pampanini; A. nutans Nakai; A. nutantiflora Nakai; A. princeps Pampanini var. candicans Pampanini, p.p.; A. vulgaris Linnaeus var. incana Maximowicz; A. vulgaris var. incanescens Franchet.
Herbs, perennial, or subshrubs, 80-150(-250) cm tall, with many lateral roots, shortly branched apically, gray arachnoid pubescent, strongly aromatic. Middle stem leaves: petiole 2-3 mm; leaf blade ovate, triangular-ovate, or subrhombic, 5-8 × 4-7 cm, abaxially densely gray arachnoid tomentose, adaxially incanous pubescent and white gland-dotted, 1(or 2)-pinnatipartite or -cleft; segments 2 or 3 pairs, usually serrate, base attenuate; veins abaxially prominent. Uppermost leaves and leaflike bracts pinnatipartite to 3-partite, or entire; bracts elliptic, elliptic-lanceolate, or lanceolate. Synflorescence a narrow panicle with branches to 10 cm, ascending, lower ones subtended by leaflike bracts. Capitula secund, not touching, subsessile. Involucre ellipsoid, 2.5-3(-3.5) mm in diam.; phyllaries arachnoid pubescent, or glabrescent. Marginal female florets 6-10. Disk florets 8-12, bisexual. Achenes ovoid-oblong or oblong. Fl. and fr. Jul-Oct. 2n = 36.
Waste places, roadsides, slopes, hills, steppes, forest steppes; low elevations to 1500 m. Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Korea, Mongolia, Russia].
Artemisia argyi is used in making important anti-inflammatory, detoxifying, and hemostatic drugs. Leaf form is very variable: plants with slender, more deeply divided, pinnatipartite middle stem leaves have been placed in A. argyi var. gracilis Pampanini (朝鲜艾 chao xian ai), but, as such leaves are found throughout the range of the species, it does not seem worthwhile to formally separate them. (责任编辑:徐晔春)
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