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杉叶藻Hippuris vulgaris

时间:2013-09-24 12:40来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):杉叶藻 学名( Scientific Name ): Hippuris vulgaris L. 英文名( English Common Name ): common mares-tail 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 异名( Synonym ): Hippuris spiralis D. Yu Hippuris vulgaris var. ramifi
中文名(Chinese Name):杉叶藻
学名(Scientific Name):Hippuris vulgaris L.
英文名(English Common Name):common mare's-tail
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Hippuris spiralis D. Yu  Hippuris vulgaris var. ramificans D. Yu  Hippuris eschscholtzii Cham. ex Lam.  Hippuris montana Lam.  Hippuris tetraphylla L.  Caullinia hippuroides Raf.  Hippuris eschscholtxii Cham. ex Ledeb.  Hippuris fluitans Lilj. ex Hising.  Hippuris fluviatilis Hoffm.  Hippuris generalis E.H.L.Krause  Hippuris lanceolata Retz.  Hippuris maritima Hell.  Hippuris melanocarpa N. Semen.  Hippuris palustris Gorter  Hippuris polyphylla Raf.  Hippuris verticillata Gilib.
科属(Family & Genus):杉叶藻科(Hippuridaceae)杉叶藻属
形态特征(Description):多年生水生草本,全株光滑无毛。茎直立,多节,常带紫红色,高8-150厘米,上部不分枝,下部合轴分枝,有匍匐白色或棕色肉质根茎,节上生多数纤细棕色须根,生于泥中。叶条形,轮生,两型,无柄,(4-) 8-10 (-12)片轮生。沉水中的根茎粗大,圆柱形,径3-5毫米,茎中具多孔隙贮气组织,白色或棕色,节上生多数须根;叶线状披针形,长1.5-2.5厘米,宽约1-1.5毫米,全缘,较弯曲细长,柔软脆弱,茎中部叶最长,向上或向下渐短;露出水面的根茎较沉水叶根茎细小,节间亦短,节间长5-15毫米,径3-5毫米,表面平滑,茎中空隙少而小;叶条形或狭长圆形,长1.5-2.5(-6)厘米,宽1-1.5厘米,无柄、全缘,与深水叶相比稍短而挺直,羽状脉不明显,先端有一半透明,易断离成二叉状扩大的短锐尖。花细小,两性,稀单性,无梗,单生叶腋;萼与子房大部分合生成卵状椭圆形,萼全缘,常带紫色;无花盘;雄蕊1,生于子房上略偏一侧;花丝细,常短于花柱,被疏毛或无毛,花药红色,椭圆形,个字着生,顶端常靠在花药背部两药室之间,两裂,长约1毫米;子房下位,椭圆形,长不到1毫米,1室,内有1倒生胚珠,胚珠有一单层珠被,珠孔完全闭合,有珠柄,花柱宿存,针状,稍长于花丝,被疏毛,雌蕊先熟,主要为风媒传粉。果为小坚果状,卵状椭圆形,长约1.2-1.5毫米,直径约1毫米,表面平滑无毛,外果皮薄,内果皮厚而硬,不开裂,内有1种子,外种皮具胚乳。花期4-9月,果期5-10月。
分布(Distribution):产东北、华北北部、西北、台湾、西南等省区。多群生在海拔40-5000米的池沼、湖泊、溪流、江河两岸等浅水。全世界有分布。
用途(Use):全草细嫩、柔软,产量较高,适于作猪、禽类及草食性鱼类的饲料。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 13 Page 433      
Hippuris vulgaris Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 4. 1753.
杉叶藻 shan ye zao | Hippuridaceae  | Hippuris
 Hippuris vulgaris
Credit: Harvard University Herbaria
Hippuris eschscholtzii Lamarck; H. montana Reichenbach; H. spiralis D. Yu; H. vulgaris var. ramificans D. Yu.
Stems 10-150 cm or longer in running water. Leaves (4-)8-12-whorled, often spreading, lanceolate to linear, 1.5-6 × 0.1-0.2 cm, longest at mid-shoot, margin entire to weakly denticulate, apex somewhat thickened, subacute; submerged leaves longer than emergent leaves. Flowers purplish. Stamens ca. 1.5 mm. Ovary ca. 1 mm. Achene ovoid-ellipsoid, 1.5-2.5 mm, smooth. Fl. Apr-Sep, fr. May-Oct.
Stagnant and slow-running waters, lakes, bogs, streams, river shores, paddy fields; near sea level to 5000 m. Gansu, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan [temperate regions worldwide].
The character of leaves spirally arranged seems not to be true for Hippuris spiralis. In fact, in that entity the leaves are whorled but the whorls are oblique. This variation may be caused by twisted shoots, especially in running water. Terminal subshoots are a common variant in H. vulgaris. For these reasons, both H. spiralis and H. vulgaris var. ramificans are treated here as synonyms of H. vulgaris.




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