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豆瓣菜Nasturtium officinale

时间:2018-06-25 14:11来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):豆瓣菜 学名( Scientific Name ): Nasturtium officinale R. Br. 英文名( English Common Name ): watercress 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 西洋菜、水田芥 异名( Synonym ): Sisymbrium nasturtium-aquaticum L. Ba
中文名(Chinese Name):豆瓣菜
学名(Scientific Name):Nasturtium officinale R. Br.
英文名(English Common Name):watercress
别名(Chinese Common Name):西洋菜、水田芥
异名(Synonym):Sisymbrium nasturtium-aquaticum L.  Baeumerta nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) P. Gaertn., B. Mey. & Scherb. ex Hayek  Cardamine fontana Lam.  Nasturtium fontanum (Lam.) Asch.  Nasturtium nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) H. Karst.  Nasturtium siifolium Rchb.  Radicula nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Britten & Rendle  Rorippa officinalis (R. Br.) P. Royen  Nasturtium officinale subsp. rotundifolium A.P. Khokhr.  Baeumerta nasturtium P.Gaertn.,B.Mey. & Schreb.  Arabis nasturtium Clairv.  Cardamine aquatica (Garsault) Nieuwl.  Cardaminum nasturtium Moench  Cardamine nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Borbás  Crucifera fontana E.H.L.Krause  Nasturtium nasturtium (Moench) Cockerell  Sisymbrium nasturtium (Moench) Willd.  Sisymbrium cardaminefolium Gilib.  Sisymbrium fluviatile Vell.  Sisymbrium amarum Salisb.
科属Family & Genus):十字花科(Cruciferae)豆瓣菜属
形态特征Description):多年生水生草本,高20-40厘米,全体光滑无毛。茎匍匐或浮水生,多分枝,节上生不定根。单数羽状复叶,小叶片3-7(-9)枚,宽卵形、长圆形或近圆形,顶端1片较大,长2-3厘米,宽1.5-2.5厘米,钝头或微凹,近全缘或呈浅波状,基部截平,小叶柄细而扁,侧生小叶与顶生的相似,基部不等称,叶柄基部成耳状,略抱茎。总状花序顶生,花多数;萼片长卵形,长2-3毫米,宽约1毫米,边缘膜质,基部略呈囊状;花瓣白色,倒卵形或宽是形,具脉纹,长3-4毫米,宽1-1.5毫米,顶端圆,基部渐狭成细爪。长角果圆柱形而扁,长15-20毫米,宽1.5-2毫米;果柄纤细,开展或微弯;花柱短。种子每室2行。卵形,直径约1毫米,红褐色,表面具网纹。花期4-5月,果期6-7月。
分布(Distribution):产我国大部分地区,生于海拔850-3700米的水沟边、山涧边、沼泽或水田中。欧洲、亚洲及北美均有。
用途(Use):广东及广西部分地区常栽培作蔬菜;全草也可药用,有解热、利尿的效能。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 8 Page 136
Nasturtium officinale R. Brown in W. T. Aiton, Hortus Kew. 4: 110. 1812.
豆瓣菜 dou ban cai | Brassicaceae  | Nasturtium
 Nasturtium officinale
Credit: Harvard University Herbaria
Sisymbrium nasturtium-aquaticum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 657. 1753; Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (Linnaeus) Hayek.
Herbs perennial, rhizomatous, aquatic, 10-70(-200) cm tall, glabrous throughout or sparsely pubescent with simple trichomes. Stems decumbent or prostrate, erect in emergent plants, branched above, rooting at proximal nodes. Leaves all cauline, pinnately compound, 3-9(-13)-foliolate; petiole auriculate at base; terminal leaflet suborbicular or oblong, 1-4 cm, base obtuse, cuneate, or subcordate, margin entire or repand, apex obtuse; lateral leaflets smaller, usually sessile. Fruiting pedicels slender, divaricate or recurved, 5-12(-20) mm. Sepals oblong, 2-3.5 mm, lateral pair slightly saccate. Petals white or pink, spatulate or obovate, 2.8-4.5(-6) × 1.5-25 mm, apex rounded; claw ca. 1 mm. Filaments white, 2-3.5 mm; anthers oblong, ca. 0.6 mm. Fruit cylindric, 1-1.5(-2) cm × (1.8-)2-2.5(-3) mm; valves with an obscure midvein; style 0.5-1(-1.5) mm. Seeds biseriate, ovoid, 1-1.3 × 0.7-1 mm, reddish brown, coarsely reticulate, with 25-50(-60) areolae on each side. Fl. Apr-Sep, fr. May-Sep. 2n = 32*.
Streams, ditches, lakes, swamps, marshes; near sea level to 3700 m. Anhui, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan [native to SW Asia and Europe; widely naturalized elsewhere].
Cultivated as a vegetable and used medicinally.










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