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新疆野苹果 Malus sieversii

时间:2013-11-07 11:47来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 新疆野苹果 学名( Scientific Name ): Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) Roem. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 塞威氏苹果 异名( Synonym ): 科属( Family Genus ): 蔷薇科(Rosaceae)苹
中文名(Chinese Name):新疆野苹果
学名(Scientific Name):Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) Roem.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):塞威氏苹果
异名(Synonym):
科属(Family & Genus):蔷薇科(Rosaceae)苹果属
形态特征(Description):乔木,高达2-10米,稀14米;树冠宽阔,常有多数主干;小枝短粗,圆柱形,嫩时具短柔毛,二年生枝微屈曲,无毛,暗灰红色,具疏生长圆形皮孔;冬芽卵形,先端钝,外被长柔毛,鳞片边缘较密,暗红色。叶片卵形、宽椭圆形、稀倒卵形,长6-11厘米,宽3-5.5厘米,先端急尖,基部楔形,稀圆形,边缘具圆钝锯齿,幼叶下面密被长柔毛,老叶较少,浅绿色,上面沿叶脉有疏生柔毛,深绿色,侧脉4-7对,下面叶脉显著;叶柄长1.2-3.5厘米,具疏生柔毛;托叶膜质,披针形,边缘有白色柔毛,早落。花序近伞形,具花3-6朵。花梗较粗,长约1.5厘米,密被白色绒毛;花直径约3-3.5厘米;萼筒钟状,外面密被绒毛;萼片宽披针形或三角披针形,先端渐尖,全缘,长约6毫米,两面均被绒毛,内面较密,萼片比萼筒稍长;花瓣倒卵形,长1.5-2厘米,基部有短爪,粉色,含苞未放时带玫瑰紫色;雄蕊20,花丝长短不等,长约花瓣之半;花柱5,基部密被白色绒毛,与雄蕊约等长或稍长。果实大,球形或扁球形,直径3-4.5厘米,稀7厘米,黄绿色有红晕,萼洼下陷,萼片宿存,反折;果梗长3.5-4厘米,微被柔毛。花期5月,果期8-10月。
分布(Distribution):产新疆,生于海拔1250米山顶、山坡或河谷地带,有大面积野生林。分布中亚细亚。
用途(Use):本种耐寒力中等,耐旱力强,丰产。野生类型很多,有红果子、黄果子、绿果子和白果子等,品质和成熟期很不一致。陕西、甘肃、新疆等地用作栽培苹果砧木,生长良好。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 9 Page 184     
Malus sieversii (Ledebour) M. Roemer, Syn. Rosifl. 216. 1830.
新疆野苹果 xin jiang ye ping guo| Rosaceae  | Malus
Pyrus sieversii Ledebour, Fl. Altaic. 2: 222. 1830.
Trees 2–10(–14) m tall; branchlets dark grayish red when old, terete, short, robust, puberulous when young, slightly curved, glabrescent when old; buds dark red, ovoid, villous abaxially. Stipules caducous, lanceolate, 3–5 mm, membranous, margin white ciliate, apex acuminate; petiole 1.2–3.5 cm, sparsely pubescent; leaf blade ovate or broadly elliptic, rarely obovate, 6–11 × 3–5.5 cm, abaxially densely villous when young, sparsely pubescent when old, adaxially sparsely pubescent along veins, base cuneate, rarely rounded, margin obtusely serrate, apex acute. Corymb umbel-like, 4–6 cm in diam., 3–6-flowered; bracts caducous, lanceolate, membranous, margin glandular serrate when young, apex acuminate. Pedicel ca. 1.5 cm, white tomentose. Flowers 3–3.5 cm in diam. Hypanthium campanulate, abaxially tomentose. Sepals broadly lanceolate or triangular-lanceolate, ca. 6 mm, longer than hypanthium, both surfaces tomentose, margin entire, apex acuminate. Petals pinkish, tinged rose when in bud, obovate, 1.5–2 cm, base shortly clawed, apex rounded. Stamens 20, unequal, ca. 1/2 as long as petals. Ovary 5-loculed, with 2 ovules per locule; styles 5, ca. as long as or slightly longer than stamens, white tomentose basally. Pome yellowish green, tinged red, globose or depressed-globose, 3–4.5(–7) cm in diam.; fruiting pedicel 3.5–4 cm, white tomentose; sepals persistent, reflexed; with cavity at apex. Fl. May, fr. Aug–Oct. 2n = 34*.
Mountain summits, slopes, valleys, often the dominant tree of forests; 1200--1300 m. W Xinjiang [Kazakhstan, Russia].
This species is vulnerable to extinction because of its limited range and exploitation. It is believed to be the principal ancestor of commercially grown apples.
 


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