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三裂海棠Malus sieboldii

时间:2013-11-07 11:46来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 三裂海棠 学名( Scientific Name ): Malus sieboldii (Regel) Rehd. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 野黄子、山楂子 异名( Synonym ): Crataegus taquetii H. Lv. Malus baccata subs
中文名(Chinese Name):三裂海棠
学名(Scientific Name):Malus sieboldii (Regel) Rehd.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):野黄子、山楂子
异名(Synonym):Crataegus taquetii H. Lév.  Malus baccata subsp. toringo (K. Koch) Koidz.  Photinia rubrolutea H. Lév.  Pyrus sieboldii Regel  Pyrus subcrataegifolia H. Lév.  Pyrus toringo (K. Koch) Miq.  Pyrus esquirolii H. Lév.  Sorbus toringo K. Koch  Malus sieboldii var. toringo (K. Koch) Siebold ex C. K. Schneid.  Malus sieboldii var. incisa Koidz.
科属Family & Genus):蔷薇科(Rosaceae)苹果属
形态特征Description):灌木,高约2-6米,枝条开展;小枝圆柱形,稍有稜角,嫩时被短柔毛,老时脱落,暗紫色或紫褐色;冬芽卵形,先端较钝,无毛或仅在先端鳞片边缘微有短柔毛,紫褐色。叶片卵形、椭圆形或长椭圆形,长3-7.5厘米,宽2-4厘米,先端急尖,基部圆形或宽楔形,边缘有尖锐锯齿,在新枝上的叶片锯齿粗锐,常3,稀5浅裂,幼叶上下两面均被短柔毛,老叶上面近于无毛,下面沿中肋及侧脉有短柔毛;叶柄长1-2.5厘米,有短柔毛;托叶草质,窄披针形,先端渐尖,全缘,微被短柔毛。花4-8朵,集生于小枝顶端,花梗长2-2.5厘米,有柔毛或近于无毛;苞片膜质,线状披针形,先端渐尖,全缘,内面被柔毛,早落;花直径2-3厘米;萼筒外面近无毛或有柔毛;萼片三角卵形,先端尾状渐尖,全缘,长5-6毫米,外面无毛,内面密被绒毛,约与萼筒等长或稍长;花瓣长椭倒卵形,长1.5-1.8厘米,基部有短爪,淡粉红色,在花蕾时颜色较深;雄蕊20,花丝长短不齐,约等于花瓣之半;花柱3-5,基部有长柔毛,较雄蕊稍长。果实近球形,直径6-8毫米,红色或褐黄色,萼片脱落,果梗长2-3厘米。花期4-5月,果期8-9月。
分布(Distribution):产辽宁、山东、陕西、甘肃、江西、浙江、湖北、湖南、四川、贵州、福建、广东、广西,生海拔150-2000米山坡杂木林或灌木丛中。分布日本、朝鲜等地。
用途(Use):春季着花甚美丽,可供观赏。山东、辽宁有用作苹果砧木者。日本广泛用为苹果砧木。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 9 Page 186
 Malus sieboldii (Regel) Rehder in Sargent, Pl. Wilson. 2: 293. 1915.
三叶海棠 san ye hai tang| Rosaceae  | Malus
Pyrus sieboldii Regel, Index Sem. Hort. Petrop. 1858: 51. 1859; Crataegus cavaleriei H. Léveillé & Vaniot; C. taquetii H. Léveillé; Malus baccata (Linnaeus) Borkhausen subsp. toringo (K. Koch) Koidzumi; M. sieboldii (Regel) Rehder var. toringo (K. Koch) Siebold ex C. K. Schneider; M. toringo (K. Koch) Carrière; Photinia rubrolutea H. Léveillé; Pyrus esquirolii H. Léveillé; P. subcrataegifolia H. Léveillé; P. toringo (K. Koch) Miquel; Sorbus toringo K. Koch.
Shrubs 2–6 m tall. Branchlets spreading, dark purple or purplish brown, terete, puberulous when young, glabrescent; buds purplish brown, ovoid, glabrous or only terminal scales puberulous at margin. Stipules narrowly lanceolate, 4–6 mm, herbaceous, slightly puberulous, margin entire, apex acuminate; petiole 1–2.5 cm, puberulous; leaf blade ovate, elliptic, or narrowly elliptic, 3–7.5 × 2–4 cm, both surfaces puberulous when young, abaxially puberulous along midvein and lateral veins when old, adaxially subglabrous, base rounded or broad cuneate, margin serrate, often 3-lobed, rarely 5-lobed on new branches, apex acute. Corymb at apices of branchlets, 4–6 cm in diam.; 4–8-flowered; bracts caducous, linear-lanceolate, membranous, adaxially pubescent, margin entire, apex acuminate. Pedicel 2–2.5 cm, pubescent or subglabrous. Flowers 2–3 cm in diam. Hypanthium campanulate, subglabrous or pubescent. Sepals ca. as long as or slightly longer than hypanthium, abaxially glabrous, adaxially tomentose, margin entire, apex caudate-acuminate. Petals pinkish, elliptic-obovate, 1.5–1.8 cm, base shortly clawed, apex rounded. Stamens 20, unequal, ca. 1/2 as long as petals. Ovary 3–5-loculed, with 2 ovules per locule; styles 3–5, slightly longer than stamens, villous basally. Pome red or brownish yellow, subglobose, 6–8 mm in diam.; sepals caducous; fruiting pedicel 2–3 cm. Fl. Apr–May, fr. Aug–Sep. 2n = 34*, 51*.
Mixed forests, among shrubs, slopes; 150--2000 m. Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Zhejiang [Korea, Japan].
This species can be used as an ornamental tree for its showy flowers in the spring. In Liaoning and Shandong provinces, it is sometimes used as stock for grafting apple trees.
 




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