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八棱海棠 Malus prunifolia

时间:2013-11-07 11:45来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 八棱海棠 学名( Scientific Name ): Malus prunifolia (Willd.) Borkh. 英文名( English Common Name ): plumleaf crab apple 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 秋子、海棠果 异名( Synonym ): Malus domestica subsp.
中文名(Chinese Name):八棱海棠
学名(Scientific Name):Malus prunifolia (Willd.) Borkh.
英文名(English Common Name):plumleaf crab apple
别名(Chinese Common Name):秋子、海棠果
异名(Synonym):Malus domestica subsp. prunifolia (Willd.) Likhonos  Pyrus prunifolia Willd. 
小乔木,高达3-8米;小枝粗壮,圆柱形,嫩时密被短柔毛,老枝灰紫色或灰褐色,无毛;冬芽卵形,先端急尖,微具柔毛,边缘较密,紫褐色,有数枚外露鳞片。叶片卵形或椭圆形,长5-9厘米,宽4-5厘米,先端渐尖或急尖,基部宽楔形,边缘有细锐锯齿,在幼嫩时上下两面的中脉及侧脉有柔毛,逐渐脱落,仅在下面中脉稍有短柔毛或近于无毛;叶柄长1-5厘米,嫩时密被柔毛,老时脱落。花4-10朵,近似伞形花序,花梗长2-3.5厘米,被短柔毛;苞片膜质,线状披针形,先端渐尖,微被柔毛,早落;花直径4-5厘米;萼筒外面被柔毛;萼片披针形或三角披针形,长7-9厘米,先端渐尖,全缘,两面均被柔毛,萼片比萼筒长;花瓣倒卵形或椭圆形,长约2.5-3厘米,宽约1.5厘米,基部有短爪,白色,含苞未放时粉红色;雄蕊20,花丝长短不齐,约等于花瓣三分之一;花柱4 (5),基部有长绒毛,比雄蕊较长。果实卵形,直径2-2.5厘米,红色,先端渐尖,稍具隆起,萼洼微突,萼片宿存肥厚,果梗细长。花期4-5月,果期8-9月。
科属(Family & Genus):蔷薇科(Rosaceae)苹果属
形态特征(Description):
分布(Distribution):产河北、山东、山西、河南、陕西、甘肃、辽宁、内蒙古等省区野生或栽培,生海拔50-1300米山坡、平地或山谷梯田边。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 9 Page 184     
Malus prunifolia (Willdenow) Borkhausen, Theor. Prakt. Handb. Forstbot. 2: 1278. 1803.
秋子 qiu zi| Rosaceae  | Malus
Pyrus prunifolia Willdenow, Phytogr. 8. 1794; Malus domestica Borkhausen subsp. prunifolia (Willdenow) Likhonos.
Trees small, to 3–8 m tall. Branchlets grayish purple or grayish brown when old, terete, robust, densely puberulous when young, glabrous when old; buds purplish brown, ovoid, sparsely pubescent. Stipules caducous, lanceolate, small, 4–5 mm, membranous, margin glandular serrate when young, apex acuminate; petiole 1–5 cm, initially densely puberulous, glabrescent; leaf blade ovate or elliptic, 5–9 × 4–5 cm, pubescent along veins when young, pubescent only along midvein or subglabrous when old, base broadly cuneate, margin serrulate, apex acuminate or acute. Corymb umbel-like, 4–8 cm in diam., 4–10-flowered; bracts caducous, linear-lanceolate, membranous, sparsely pubescent, margin entire, apex acuminate. Pedicel 2–3.5 cm; puberulous. Flowers 4–5 cm in diam. Hypanthium campanulate, abaxially puberulous. Sepals lanceolate or triangular-lanceolate, 7–9 mm, slightly longer than hypanthium, both surfaces puberulous, margin entire, apex acuminate. Petals white, pink in bud, obovate or elliptic, 2.5–3 cm, base shortly clawed, apex rounded. Stamens 20, unequal, ca. 1/3 as long as petals. Ovary 4- or 5-loculed, with 2 ovules per locule; styles 4(or 5), longer than stamens, tomentose basally. Pome yellow, red, ovoid, 2–2.5 cm in diam., with cavity at base; fruiting pedicel 2–3.5 cm, puberulous; sepals persistent. Fl. Apr–May, fr. Aug–Sep. 2n = 34*, 51*.
Slopes, plains; sea level to 1300 m. Gansu, Guizhou, Hebei, Henan, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, ?Xinjiang.
This species is an excellent stock for grafting apple trees. Many varieties have also been bred as good fruit trees.
 




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