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乐昌含笑Michelia chapensis

时间:2013-12-18 19:54作者:徐晔春 点击: 次 标签: 木兰科 Magnoliaceae 含笑属 Michelia
  中文名(Chinese Name):乐昌含笑
学名(Scientific Name):Michelia chapensis Dandy
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Michelia glaberrima Chang  Michelia constricta Dandy  Michelia brachyandra B. L. Chen et S. C. Yang  Michelia chartacea B. L. Chen et S. C. Yang  Michelia tsoi Dandy  Michelia microcarpa B. L. Chen et S. C. Yang  Michelia jiangxiensis H. T. Chang et B. C. Chen  Magnolia chapensis (Dandy) Sima
科属(Family & Genus):木兰科(Magnoliaceae)含笑属
形态特征(Description):乔木,高15-30米,胸径1米,树皮灰色至深褐色;小枝无毛或嫩时节上被灰色微柔毛。叶薄革质,倒卵形,狭倒卵形或长圆状倒卵形,长 6.5-15 (16)厘米,宽3.5-6.5 (7) 厘米,先端骤狭短渐尖,或短渐尖,尖头钝,基部楔形或阔楔形,上面深绿色,有光泽,侧脉每边9-12 (15) 条,网脉稀疏;叶柄长1.5-2.5厘米,无托叶痕,上面具张开的沟,嫩时被微柔毛,后脱落无毛。花梗长4-10毫米,被平伏灰色微柔毛,具2-5苞片脱落痕;花被片淡黄色,6片,芳香,2轮,外轮倒卵状椭圆形,长约3厘米,宽约1.5厘米;内轮较狭;雄蕊长1.7-2厘米,花药长1.1-1.5厘米,药隔伸长成1毫米的尖头;雌蕊群狭圆柱形,长约1.5厘米,雌蕊群柄长约7毫米,密被银灰色平伏微柔毛;心皮卵圆形,长约2毫米,花柱长约1.5毫米;胚珠约6枚。聚合果长约10厘米,果梗长约2厘米;蓇葖长圆体形或卵圆形,长1-1.5厘米,宽约1厘米,顶端具短细弯尖头,基部宽;种子红色,卵形或长圆状卵圆形,长约1厘米,宽约6毫米。花期3-4月,果期8-9月。
分布(Distribution):产江西、湖南、广东、广西。生于海拔500-1500米的山地林间。越南也有。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 7 Page 51, 78, 88
Michelia chapensis Dandy, J. Bot. 67: 222. 1929.
乐昌含笑 le chang han xiao | Magnoliaceae  | Michelia
Magnolia chapensis (Dandy) Sima; M. jiangxiensis (Hung T. Chang & B. L. Chen) Figlar; M. microcarpa (B. L. Chen & S. C. Yang) Sima; Michelia brachyandra B. L. Chen & S. C. Yang; M. chartacea B. L. Chen & S. C. Yang; M. constricta Dandy; M. glaberrima Hung T. Chang; M. jiangxiensis Hung T. Chang & B. L. Chen; M. microcarpa B. L. Chen & S. C. Yang; M. tsoi Dandy.
Trees, 15-30 m tall, to 1 m d.b.h. Bark gray to dark brown. Twigs glabrous or nodes grayish puberulous when young. Petiole 1-2.5 cm, adaxially furrowed, glabrous or puberulous when young but later glabrescent, without a stipular scar; leaf blade obovate, narrowly obovate, or oblong-obovate, 6.5-15(-16) × 3-6.5(-7) cm, thinly leathery, adaxially deep green and glossy, secondary veins 9-12(-15) on each side of midvein, reticulate veins sparse, base cuneate, broadly cuneate, or obtuse, apex acute to shortly acuminate, acumen obtuse. Brachyblasts 4-10 mm, appressed gray puberulous, with 2-5 bract scars. Flowers fragrant. Tepals 6, in 2 whorls, pale yellow; outer tepals obovate-elliptic, ca. 3 × 1.5 cm; inner tepals narrower. Stamens 1.7-2 cm; connective exserted and forming a ca. 1 mm mucro; anthers 1.1-1.5 cm. Gynophore ca. 7-10 mm, densely silvery appressed puberulous; gynoecium narrowly cylindric, ca. 1.5 cm; carpels ovoid, ca. 2 mm; ovules 6 per carpel; styles ca. 1.5 mm. Fruiting brachyblasts ca. 2 mm. Fruit 3.5-10 cm; mature carpels ellipsoid to ovoid, 1-1.5 × ca. 1 cm, base broad, apex with short and curved tip. Seeds red, ovoid to ellipsoid-ovoid, ca. 10 × 6 mm. Fl. Mar-Apr, fr. Aug-Nov.
Evergreen broad-leaved forests; 500-1700 m. N and W Guangdong, NE and SE Guangxi, Guizhou, S and W Hunan, S Jiangxi, SE Yunnan [N Vietnam].
This species is grown as an ornamental and used for timber.




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