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降香黄檀Dalbergia odorifera

时间:2018-08-14 07:53来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):降香黄檀 学名( Scientific Name ): Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 降香檀、降香 异名( Synonym ): 科属( Family Genus ): 豆科(Leguminosae)黄檀
中文名(Chinese Name):降香黄檀
学名(Scientific Name):Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):降香檀、降香
异名(Synonym):
科属(Family & Genus):蝶形花科,Fabaceae黄檀属
形态特征(Description):乔木,高10-15米;除幼嫩部分、花序及子房略被短柔毛外,全株无毛;树皮褐色或淡褐色,粗糙,有纵裂槽纹。小枝有小而密集皮孔。羽状复叶复叶长12-25厘米;叶柄长1.5-3厘米;托叶早落;小叶(3-) 4-5 (-6)对,近革质,卵形或椭圆形,长 (2.5) 4-7 (-9)厘米,宽2-3.5厘米,复叶顶端的1枚小叶最大,往下渐小,基部1对长仅为顶小叶的1/3,先端渐尖或急尖,钝头,基部圆或阔楔形;小叶柄长3-5毫米。圆锥花序腋生,长8-10厘米,径6-7厘米,分枝呈伞房花序状;总花梗长3-5厘米;基生小苞片近三角形,长0.5毫米,副萼状小苞片阔卵形,长约1毫米;花长约5毫米,初时密集于花序分枝顶端,后渐疏离;花梗长约1毫米;花萼长约2毫米,下方1枚萼齿较长,披针形,其余的阔卵形,急尖;花冠乳白色或淡黄色,各瓣近等长,均具长约1毫米瓣柄,旗瓣倒心形,连柄长约5毫米,上部宽约3毫米,先端截平,微凹缺,翼瓣长圆形,龙骨瓣半月形,背弯拱;雄蕊9,单体;子房狭椭圆形,具长柄,柄长约2.5毫米,有胚珠1-2粒。荚果舌状长圆形,长4.5-8厘米,宽1.5-1.8厘米,基部略被毛,顶端钝或急尖,基部骤然收窄与纤细的果颈相接,果颈长5-10毫米,果瓣革质,对种子的部分明显凸起,状如棋子,厚可达5毫米,有种子1(-2)粒。
分布(Distribution):产海南。生于中海拔有山坡疏林中、林缘或村旁旷地上。
用途(Use):木材质优,边材淡黄色,质略疏松,心材红褐色,坚重,纹理致密,为上等家具良材;有香味,可作香料;根部心材名降香,供药用。为良好的镇痛剂,又治刀伤出血。
引自植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 10 Page 123, 128
Dalbergia odorifera T. C. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 8: 351. 1963.
降香黄檀 jiang xiang huang tan| Fabaceae  | Dalbergia
Trees, 10-15 m tall, glabrous except for young shoots; inflorescence and ovary puberulent. Bark brown or pale brown, rough, longitudinally splitting; branchlets with small, dense len­ticels. Leaves 12-25 cm; stipules caducous; petiole 1.5-3 cm; leaflets (7-)9-11(-13); petiolules 3-5 mm; blades ovate or elliptic, (2.5-)4-7(-9) × 2-3.5 cm, distal longest, basal pair ca. 1/3 as long as distal, subleathery, base rounded or broadly cu­neate, apex obtuse to acuminate. Panicles axillary, 8-10 × 6-7 cm; peduncles 3-5 cm. Flowers ca. 5 mm, initially aggregated at apices of corymbose branches of inflorescence, lax after­ward; bracts subtriangular, ca. 0.5 mm; bracteoles broadly ovate, ca. as long as ca. 1 mm pedicels. Calyx campanulate, ca. 2 mm, 5-toothed; lowest tooth lanceolate, longer than others, other teeth broadly ovate, acute. Corolla creamy white or pale yellowish; petals subequal in length, clawed; standard obcor­date, ca. 5 mm including claw, ca. 3 mm wide, apex truncate, emarginate; wings oblong; keel half-moon-shaped, arcuate on lower side. Stamens 9, monadelphous. Ovary narrowly elliptic, 1- or 2-ovuled, with long stipe ca. 2.5 mm. Legume ligulate-oblong, 4.5-8 × 1.5-1.8 cm, leathery, apex obtuse or acute, base abruptly narrowed to slender 5-10 mm stipe; reticulation dis­tinctly prominent opposite 1(or 2) seeds. Seeds reniform, com­pressed. Fl. Apr-Jun, fr. Jul-Dec.
● Open forests, mountain slopes, margins of forests or wastelands, beside villages; 100-500 m. Fujian, Hainan, Zhejiang.




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