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烟斗柯Lithocarpus corneus

时间:2013-09-11 10:27来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):烟斗柯 学名( Scientific Name ): Lithocarpus corneus (Lour.) Rehd. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 石锥、烟斗子 异名( Synonym ): Lithocarpus kodaihoensis (Hayata) Hayata Lith
中文名(Chinese Name):烟斗柯
学名(Scientific Name):Lithocarpus corneus (Lour.) Rehd.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):石锥、烟斗子
异名(Synonym):Lithocarpus kodaihoensis (Hayata) Hayata  Lithocarpus ellipticus var. glabratus F. P. Metcalf  Lithocarpus tsangii A. Camus  Pasania cornea (Lour.) Oerst.  Pasania kodaihoensis (Hayata) H. L. Li  Quercus kodaihoensis Hayata  Quercus cornea Lour.  Synaedrys cornea (Lour.) Koidz.
科属(Family & Genus):壳斗科(Fagaceae)柯属
形态特征(Description):乔木,高通常在15米以内,胸径15-40厘米,小枝淡黄灰色,无毛或被短柔毛,散生微凸起的皮孔;托叶披针形或线形,较迟脱落。叶常聚生于枝顶部,纸质或革质,椭圆形,倒卵状长椭圆形或卵形,长4-20厘米,宽1.5-7厘米,顶部渐尖或短突尖,基部楔形至近于圆,对称或一侧略短,叶缘有裂齿或浅波浪状,很产兼有全缘,两面同色,叶背被雨点状、无色、半透明、甚细小(在4倍扩大镜下可见)的鳞腺,侧脉每边9-20条,直达齿端,支脉纤细,彼此近于平行;叶柄长0.5-4厘米。雌花通常着生于雄花序轴的下段,若全为雌花则花序长不过10厘米;每3朵一簇,也常有单朵散生,花柱斜展,长约2毫米。壳斗碗状或半圆形,高22-45毫米,宽25-55毫米,少有较少,则果序较长且有成熟壳斗多达16个,包着坚果约一半至大部分,小苞片三角形或斜四边菱形,中央及两侧边缘脊肋状增厚且略隆起,形成规则的网纹,很少几全与壳壁愈合而仅留痕迹,壳壁中部以下甚增厚,木质;坚果半圆形或宽陀螺形,顶部圆,平坦或中央略凹陷,很少无毛,果壁近角质,比壳壁厚,很少等厚,果脐占坚果面积一半至大部分,其上部的边缘檐状,子叶饱满,4-8浅裂。花期几乎全年,盛花期5-7月,果次年约同期成熟。
分布(Distribution):产台湾、福建、湖南、贵州、广西、广东、云南东南部。生于海拔约1000米以下山地常绿阔叶林中。越南东北部也有。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 4 Page 349
Lithocarpus corneus (Loureiro) Rehder in Bailey, Stand. Cycl. Hort. 3569. 1917.
烟斗柯 yan dou ke | Fagaceae  | Lithocarpus
Trees usually less than 15 m tall. Branchlets light tawny, dark gray, or silver-gray, glabrous or pubescent, sparsely lenticellate; lenticels raised. Leaves usually congested at apex of branches; petiole 0.5-4.5 cm; leaf blade (5-)10-15 × 2-4.5 cm, papery to leathery, concolorous, with ± translucent, minute (visible under hand lens) scalelike glands, base cuneate to subrounded and symmetric or oblique, margin dentate, shallowly undulate, or rarely entire, apex acuminate to acute; secondary veins 9-26 on each side of midvein, ending in teeth; tertiary veins abaxially slender, evident, subparallel. Male inflorescences often with female flowers borne at base of rachis; Female inflorescences less than 10 cm; cupules in clusters of ca. 3 or sometimes solitary. Infructescences 5-7; rachis 3-4 mm thick. Cupule cupular to subglobose, 2.2-4.5 × 2.5-5.5 cm, enclosing ca. 1/2 of nut, wall (1-)2-3 mm thick, woody, and basally thickened; bracts triangular to rhomboid, center and margin ridged or fused with cupule and ± united into concentric rings. Nut subglobose to turbinate, rarely glabrous, apex rounded, flat, or slightly concave, wall ± horny and usually thicker than wall of cupule; scar covering 1/2 to most of nut, convex. Cotyledons 4-8-lobed. Fl. almost all year around but mainly May-Jul, fr. maturing on 1-year-old branchlets.
Broad-leaved evergreen forests, frequent on sunny slopes and in dry places, coastal regions; below 1000 m. S Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, S Guizhou, Hainan, S Hunan, Taiwan, EC and SE Yunnan [NE Vietnam]
A widespread and variable species. A critical review of the pattern of variation within Lithocarpus corneus may show that the acceptance of most of the varieties below is unjustified.




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