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柯Lithocarpus glaber

时间:2013-09-11 10:28来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):柯 学名( Scientific Name ): Lithocarpus glaber (Thunb.) Nakai 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 子弹石栎、珠子栎、石栎 异名( Synonym ): :Kuromatea glabra (Thunb.) Kudo Lithoc
中文名(Chinese Name):柯
学名(Scientific Name):Lithocarpus glaber (Thunb.) Nakai
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):子弹石栎、珠子栎、石栎
异名(Synonym)::Kuromatea glabra (Thunb.) Kudo  Lithocarpus thalassicus (Hance) Rehder  Pasania glabra (Thunb.) Oerst.  Quercus thalassica Hance  Quercus thalassica var. obtusiglans Dunn  Pasania thalassica (Hance) Oerst.  Pasania sieboldiana (Blume) Nakai  Quercus sieboldiana Blume  Synaedrys glabra (Thunb.) Koidz.  Quercus inversa Lindl. & Paxton  Quercus reversa Benth.  Lithocarpus inversus (Lindl. & Paxton) Nakai  Synaedrys thalassica (Hance) Koidz.  Lithocarpus glaber var. obtusiglans Dunn
科属(Family & Genus):壳斗科(Fagaceae)柯属
形态特征(Description):乔木,高15米,胸径40厘米,一年生枝、嫩叶叶柄、叶背及花序轴均密被灰黄色短绒毛,二年生枝的毛较疏且短,常变为污黑色。叶革质或厚纸质,倒卵形、倒卵状椭圆形或长椭圆形,长6-14厘米,宽2.5-5.5厘米,顶部突急尖,短尾状,或长渐尖,基部楔形,上部叶缘有2-4个浅裂齿或全缘,中脉在叶面微凸起,侧脉每边很少多于10条,支脉通常不明显,成长叶背面无毛或几无毛,有较厚的蜡鳞层;叶柄长1-2厘米,雄穗状花序多排成圆锥花序或单穗腋生,长达15厘米;雌花序常着生少数雄花,雌花每3朵、很少5朵一簇,花柱1-1.5毫米。果序轴通常被短柔毛;壳斗碟状或浅碗状,通常上宽下窄的倒三角形,高5-10毫米,宽10-15毫米,顶端边缘甚薄,向下甚增厚,硬木质,小苞片三角形,甚细小,紧贴,覆瓦状排列或连生成圆环,密被灰色微柔毛;坚果椭圆形,高12-25毫米,宽8-15毫米,顶端尖,或长卵形,有淡薄的白色粉霜,暗栗褐色,果脐深达2毫米,口径3-5毫米,很少达8毫米。花期7-11月,果次年同期成熟。
分布(Distribution):产秦岭南坡以南各地,但北回归线以南极少见,海南和云南南部不产。生于海拔约1 500米以下坡地杂木林中,阳坡较常见,常因被砍伐,故生成灌木状。日本南部也有。
用途(Use):树皮褐黑色,不开裂,内皮红棕色,木材的心边材近于同色,干后淡茶褐色,材质颇坚重,结构略粗,纹理直行,不甚耐腐,适作家具,农具等材。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 4 Page 363
Lithocarpus glaber (Thunberg) Nakai, Cat. Hort. Bot. Univ. Tokyo. 8. 1916.
柯 ke| Fagaceae  | Lithocarpus
Quercus glabra Thunberg in Murray, Syst. Veg., ed. 14, 858. 1784; Kuromatea glabra (Thunberg) Kudo; Lithocarpus thalassicus (Hance) Rehder; Pasania glabra (Thunberg) Oersted; P. sieboldiana (Blume) Nakai; P. thalassica (Hance) Oersted; Q. sieboldiana Blume; Q. thalassica Hance; Q. thalassica var. obtusiglans Dunn; Synaedrys glabra (Thunberg) Koidzumi.
Trees to 15 m tall; branchlets and rachis of inflorescences densely tawny tomentose. Petiole 1-2 cm, tomentose when young; leaf blade obovate, obovate-elliptic, or oblong, 6-12 × 2.5-5.5 cm, leathery to thickly papery, abaxially with dense scalelike glands and shortly tomentose when young, base cuneate, margin entire or with 2-4 teeth on apical part, apex abruptly acute, shortly acute, or long acuminate; secondary veins rarely over 10 on each side of midvein; tertiary veins abaxially usually not visible. Male inflorescences in a panicle or solitary in leaf axils, to 15 cm. Female inflorescences often with a few male flowers; cupules in clusters of 3(-5). Infructescences ca. 6 cm; rachis usually pubescent. Cupule plate- to cupular, 5-10 mm × 1-1.5 cm, enclosing 1/5-2/5 of nut, wall to 1.5 mm and woody near base; bracts imbricate or connate into concentric rings, triangular, small, appressed, densely puberulent. Nut ellipsoid, 1.2-2.5 × 0.8-1.5 cm, ± white glaucous, apex pointed, wall 0.5-1 mm thick; scar 3-5(-8) mm in diam., concave. Fl. Jul-Nov, fr. Jul-Nov of following year.
Mixed mesophytic forests, frequent on sunny slopes; below 1500 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Taiwan, Zhejiang [Japan]




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